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The pumping action of the heart propels blood that contains oxygen, nutrients, and other vital products from the heart to body cells through a vast network of blood vessels called

arteries

1

Arteries branch into smaller vessels called

venules

2

venules combine to form

veins

3

Portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

4

Flat, leaf shaped structure that comprises the valves of the heart and prevents backflow of blood

leaflet

5

Tubular space or channel within an organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube

lumen

6

Backflow or ejecting of contents through and opening

regurgitation

7

Circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening

sphincter

8

Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes

vasoconstriction

9

Widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls

vasodilation

10

state of being sticky or gummy

viscosity

11

3 major types of vessels

artery
capillary
vein

They carry blood throughout the body

12

The walls of arteries have 3 layers to provide toughness and elasticity

tunica externa
tunica media
tunica intima

13

The outer coat of an arterie composed of connective tissue that provides strength and flexibility

tunica externa

14

the middle layer of an arterie composed of smooth muscle

tunica media

15

Depending on the needs of the body the tunica media can alter the size of the _______ of the vessel

lumen

16

Vasoconstriction results in

decreased blood flow

17

Vasodilation results in

increased blood flow

18

The thin lining of the lumen of a vessel composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth surface on the inside of the vessel

tunica intima

19

The surge of blood felt in arteries when blood is pumped from the heart is referred to as a

pulse

20

Oxygenated blood travels to smaller arteries called

arterioles

21

Microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system

capillaries

22

return blood to the heart

veins

23

veins are formed from smaller vessels called _______that develop from the union of capillaries

venules

24

Small structures within veins that prevent the backflow of blood

valves

25

A muscular pump that propels blood to the entire body through a closed vascular network

heart

26

The heart is found in a sac called

pericardium

27

3 layers of the heart

endocardium
myocardium
epicardium

28

A serous membrane that lines the 4 chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins

endocardium

29

The muscular layer of the heart

myocardium

30

the outermost layer of the heart

epicardium

31

4 chambers of the heart

right atrium (RA)
left atrium (LA)
right ventricle (RV)
left ventricle (LV)

32

The right and left atrium do what

collect blood

33

The right and left ventricle do what

pump blood from the heart

34

The right ventricle pumps blood to the ________ for oxygenation and the left ventricle pumps blood to the _________

lungs (pulmonary circulation)
entire body (systemic circulation)

35

Collects and carries blood from the upper body

superior vena cava

36

collects and carries blood from the lower body

inferior vena cava

37

From the right atrium blood passes through the ______

tricuspid valve consisting of 3 leaflets to the right ventricle

38

When the heart contracts blood leaves the right ventricle by way of the

left and right pulmonary arteries and travels to the lungs

39

prevents regurgitation of blood into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery

pulmonic valve (pulmonary semilunar valve)

40

Pulmonary capillaries unite to form 4 pulmonary veins

2 right pulmonary veins
2 left pulmonary veins

41

Blood passes to the left ventricle through the

mitral (bicuspid) valve

42

Upon contraction of the ventricles the oxygenated blood leaves the heart through the largest artery of the body the

aorta

43

The aorta contains _________ that permits blood flow in only one direction- from the left ventricle to the aorta

aortic semilunar valve (aortic valve)

44

The artery vascularizing the right side of the heart is the

right coronary artery

45

The artery vascularizing the left side of the heart is the

left coronary artery

46

The left coronary artery divides into 2 branches

left anterior descending artery
circumflex artery

47

specialized cardiac tissue in the heart that has the sole function of initiating and spreading contraction impulses

conduction tissue

48

Without being stimulated by external nerves _______ has the ability to initiate and propagate each heartbeat, thereby setting the basic pace for the cardiac rate

sinoatrial (SA) node
pacemaker

49

The cardiac rate may be altered by impulses from the

autonomic nervous system

50

Each electrical impulse discharged by the SA node is transmitted to the ________causing the atria to contract

atrioventricular (AV) node

51

A tract of conduction fibers called the ________ composed of a right and left branch, relays the impulse to the ________.

bundle of His (AV bundle)
Purkinje fibers

52

Impulse transmission through the conduction system generates weak electrical impulses on the surface of the body. These impulses can be recorded on graph paper by an instrument called an

electrocardiograph

53

The depolarization (contraction) of the atria

P wave

54

The depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles

QRS complex

55

Appears a short time after the QRS complex, is the repolarization (recovery) of the ventricles

T wave

56

The force exerted by blood against the arterial walls during 2 phases of a heartbeat

blood pressure (BP)

57

The contraction phase when the blood is forced out of the heart

systole

58

the relaxation phase when the ventricles are filling with blood

diastole

59

Blood pressure is measured with a ________ and is recorded as 2 figures separated by a diagonal line.

sphygmomanometer

60

thickness, of blood

viscosity

61

widened blood vessel

aneurysm/o

62

vessel (usually blood or lymph)

angi/o
vascul/o

63

aort/o

aorta

64

arteri/o

artery

65

arteriol/o

arteriole

66

atri/o

atrium

67

ather/o

fatty plaque

68

cardi/o

heart

69

coron/o

heart

70

electr/o

electricity

71

embol/o

embolus (plug)

72

hemangi/o

blood vessel

73

my/o

muscle

74

phleb/o

vein

75

ven/o

vein

76

scler/o

hardening
sclera (white of eye)

77

sept/o

septum

78

sphygm/o

pulse

79

sten/o

narrowing
stricture

80

thromb/o

blood clot

81

valv/o

valve

82

valvul/o

valve

83

vas/o

vessel
vas deferens
duct

84

ventricul/o

ventricle (of the heart or brain)

85

-cardia

heart condition

86

-gram

record
writing

87

-graph

instrument for recording

88

-graphy

process of recording

89

-stenosis

narrowing
stricture

90

brady-

slow

91

endo-

in
within

92

extra-

outside

93

peri-

around

94

trans-

across

95

angina

chest pain

96

dyspnea

breathing difficulties

97

arrhythmias

cardiac irregularities

98

syncope

loss of consciousness

99

The medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system

cardiology

100

the physician who treats disorders of the cardiovascular system

cadiologist

101

A progressive degenerative disease of arterial walls that causes them to become thickened and brittle

Arteriosclerosis

102

atheroma hardens

artherosclerosis

103

If the thrombus dislodges and travels through the vascular system

embolus
plural emboli

104

Arterial emboli that completely block circulation cause localized tissue death

infarct

105

A partial blocking of circulation causes localized tissue anemia

ischemia

106

elevated level of fatty substances in the blood

hyperlipidemia

107

When occluding material and plaque are removed from teh innermost layer of the artery

endarterectomy

108

Any disease that interferes with the ability of the coronary arteries to supply blood to the myocardium

coronary artery disease (CAD)

109

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

110

pallor

paleness

111

dyspnea

labored breathing

112

tachycardia

rapid heart rate

113

bradycardia

slow heart rate

114

A hollow thin mesh tube placed on a balloon and positioned against an artery wall

stent

115

An inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves

endocarditis

116

Bacteria traveling in the bloodstream

bacteremia

117

Bacteria traveling in the bloodstream may lodge in the weakened heart tissue and form small masses

vegetations

118

backflow of blood

regurgitation

119

stenosis

narrow

120

insufficiency

not close properly

121

Patients who are susceptible to endocarditis are given antibiotic treatment to protect against infection before invasive procedures

prophylactic treatment

122

Enlarged, engorged, twisted, superficial veins

varicose veins

123

When varicose veins develop in the esophagus

varices

124

when varicose veins develop in the rectum

hemorrhoids

125

A type of varicose vein which appears as small blue veins seen through the skin and "spider" veins

telangiectases

126

vein inflammation

phlebitis

127

The most common primary tumor of the heart composed of mucous connective tissue

myxoma

128

fluid in the lungs

pulmonary edema

129

joint pain

arthralgia

130

darkly pigmented mole or tumor

malignant melanoma

131

Mild to severe suffocating pain that typically occurs in the chest and is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

angina

132

Irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart

arrhythmia
dysrhythmia

133

Arrhythmia in which there is an abnormally rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles

fibrillation

134

Arrhythmia in which there is interference with the normal transmission of electric impulses from the SA node to the Purkinje fibers

heart block

135

Arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 beats/minute

tachycardia

136

Hardening and narrowing of an artery along with the loss of its elasticity

arteriosclerosis

137

Form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposit of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids that narrows the lumen in the arteries

atherosclerosis

138

Narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by artherosclerosis; may eventually lead to thrombus formation and stroke

carotid artery disease

139

Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, associated valvular action or with the movement of blood as it passes an obstruction or both

bruit
murmur

140

Disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

cardiomyopathy

141

Narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

coarctation

142

Condition in which a mass (commonly a blood clot) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing blood flow

embolism

143

Excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

hyperlipidemia

144

Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg

hypertension (HTN)

145

Low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg

hypotension

146

Localized tissue necrosis due to the cessation of blood supply

infarction

147

Structural defect in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction (systole), resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

148

Sensation of an irregular heartbeat, commonly described as pounding, racing, skipping a beat, or flutter

palpitation

149

Inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs (more commonly the legs)

phlebitis

150

Partial or complete loss of consciousness that is usually caused by a decreased supply of blood to the brain

syncope
fainting

151

Abnormal condition in which a blood clot develops in a vessel and obstructs it at the site of its formation

thrombosis

152

Blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

153

Electrical shock delivered randomly during the cardiac cycle to treat emergency life-threatening arrhythmias

defibrilation

154

Defibrillation technique using low energy shocks to treat an arrhythmia (arterial fibrillation, arterial flutter, or ventricular tachycardia), and is usually synchronized with the large R waves of the ECG complex to restore normal heart rhythm

cardioversion

155

Injection of a chemical irritant (sclerosing agent) into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen in the vein

sclerotherapy

156

Destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters such as tissue plasminogen activator

thrombolysis

157

Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and stores forward blood flow

angioplasty

158

Angioplasty of the coronary arteries in which a balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the right femoral artery and threaded to the site of the stenosis to enlarge the lumen of the artery and restore forward blood flow

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

159

Removal of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes

biopsy

160

Removal of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis

arterial biopsy

161

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias; usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance

catheter ablation

162

Surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their points of contact (commissures)

commissurotomy

163

Placement of a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

164

Removal of an embolus

embolectomy

165

Removal of fatty plaque from the interior of an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device

endarterectomy

166

Implantation of a battery-powered device that monitors an d automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death; also called implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)

automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) insertion

167

Procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins

laser ablation

168

Surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine

open heart surgery

169

Placement of a mesh tube inserted into a natural passage or conduit in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction

stent placementq

170

Incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis

valvotomy

171

Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart

cardiac catheterization (CC)

172

Procedure used to determine the cause of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias by mapping the heart's conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia

electrophysiology study (EPS)

173

Procedure that graphically records the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied ot the chest arms and legs

electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)

174

ECG taken with a small, portable recording system capable of storing up to 48 hours of ECG tracings; also called event monitor test

Holter monitor test

175

ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (bicycle or treadmill)

stress test

176

Blood test that measures the presence and amount of cardiac enzymes in the blood, including troponin T, troponin I, and creatine kinase (CK-MB)

cardiac enzyme studies

177

Series of blood tests (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease

lipid panel

178

Radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium

angiogaphy

179

Angiography of the aorta and its branches after injection of a contrast medium

aortography

180

Angiography that is used to determine the degree of stenosis or obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart

coronary

181

Noninvasive technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce highly detailed, multiplanar, cross-sectional views of soft tissues

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

182

Specialized MRI that provides information on both static and moving images of the heart, including blood flow and velocity

cardiac

183

Type of MRI scan that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to provide detailed images of blood vessels

magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

184

Nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to detect how well the heart walls move as they contract and calculates the ejection fraction rate (amount of blood the ventricle can pump out in one contraction)

multiple-gated acquisition

185

MUGA scan of the heart in which the gamma camera moves in a circle around the patient to create individual images as "slices" of the heart (tomography)

single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

186

Test used in conjunction with a stress test to detect the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) that is causing partial obstruction of the coronary arteries

nuclear perfusion study

187

High-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure

Ultrasonography (US)

188

Ultrasonography used to assess blood flow through blood vessels and the heart

doppler

189

Ultrasonography that is used to visualize internal cardiac structures, produced images of the heart, and assess cardiac output

echocardigraphy (ECHO)

190

Radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, indicating an obstruction

venography

191

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

192

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme (inhibitor)

193

AFib

atrial fibrillation

194

AICD

automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

195

AS

aortic stenosis

196

ASHD

arteriosclerotic heart disease

197

AV

atrioventricular, arteriovenous

198

BP, B/P

blood pressure

199

CA

cancer; cardiac arrest; chronological age

200

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

201

CAD

coronary artery disease

202

CC

cardiac catheterization

203

CHD

coronary heart disease

204

Chol

cholesterol

205

CK

creatine kinase (cardiac enzyme); conductive keratoplasty

206

CO2

carbon dioxide

207

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

208

ECG, EKG

electrocardiogram, electrocardiography

209

ECHO

echocardiogram, echocardiography; echoencephalogram, echoencephalography

210

EPS

electrophysiology studies

211

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

212

HF

heart failure

213

HTN

hypertension

214

ICD

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

215

LA

left atrium

216

LDL

low-desity lipoprotein

217

LV

left ventricle

218

MI

myocardial infarction

219

MRA

magnetic resonance angiogram
magnetic resonance angiography

220

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

221

MUGA scan

multiple-gated acquisition scan

222

O2

oxygen

223

NSR

normal sinus rhythm

224

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

225

RA

right atrium

226

RV

residual volume; right ventricle

227

SA, S-A

sinoatrial

228

US

ultrasound