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The pumping action of the heart propels blood that contains oxygen, nutrients, and other vital products from the heart to body cells through a vast network of blood vessels called

arteries

1

Arteries branch into smaller vessels called

venules

2

venules combine to form

veins

3

Portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

4

Flat, leaf shaped structure that comprises the valves of the heart and prevents backflow of blood

leaflet

5

Tubular space or channel within an organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube

lumen

6

Backflow or ejecting of contents through and opening

regurgitation

7

Circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening

sphincter

8

Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes

vasoconstriction

9

Widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls

vasodilation

10

state of being sticky or gummy

viscosity

11

3 major types of vessels

artery
capillary
vein

They carry blood throughout the body

12

The walls of arteries have 3 layers to provide toughness and elasticity

tunica externa
tunica media
tunica intima

13

The outer coat of an arterie composed of connective tissue that provides strength and flexibility

tunica externa

14

the middle layer of an arterie composed of smooth muscle

tunica media

15

Depending on the needs of the body the tunica media can alter the size of the _______ of the vessel

lumen

16

Vasoconstriction results in

decreased blood flow

17

Vasodilation results in

increased blood flow

18

The thin lining of the lumen of a vessel composed of endothelial cells that provide a smooth surface on the inside of the vessel

tunica intima

19

The surge of blood felt in arteries when blood is pumped from the heart is referred to as a

pulse

20

Oxygenated blood travels to smaller arteries called

arterioles

21

Microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with the venous system

capillaries

22

return blood to the heart

veins

23

veins are formed from smaller vessels called _______that develop from the union of capillaries

venules

24

Small structures within veins that prevent the backflow of blood

valves

25

A muscular pump that propels blood to the entire body through a closed vascular network

heart

26

The heart is found in a sac called

pericardium

27

3 layers of the heart

endocardium
myocardium
epicardium

28

A serous membrane that lines the 4 chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins

endocardium

29

The muscular layer of the heart

myocardium