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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (45)
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Electoral college

Electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledge to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates


Preesidential ticket

The joint listening of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot, as required by the 12th amendment


The vesting clause

The presidents constitutional authority to control most executive functions



A formal public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate


Executive agreement

A formal agreement between the US president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval


Congressional executive agreement

A formal agreement between the US president and the leaders of other nations that requires approval by both house of Congress


Recess appointment

Presidential appointment made without Senate confirmation during senate recess



A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress


Pocket veto

A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congres after it adjourns – if Congress adjourns during the 10 days that the president is allowed to sign or veto a law the president can reject the law by taking no action at all


Take care clause

The constitutional requirement that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws


Inherent powers

Powers that grow out of the very existence of government


State of the Union address

The presidents annual statement to Congress and the nation


Signing statement

A formal document that explains why is president is signing a particular bill into law. The statements may contain objections to the bill and promises not to implement key sections


The power to inform and convene Congress

Presidents are required from time to time to give the congress information of the state of the union and recommend to their considerations such measures as he shall judge necessary



A formal accusation against the president or another public official: the first step and removal from office


War Powers resolution

A resolution passed in 1973 requiring the president to give advance warnings of a military attack or asked Congress for a declaration of war or specific legislation


Executive privilege

The right to keep executive communications confidential especially if they relate to national security


Executive orders

Formal orders to government or an agency or agencies as a whole that carry the force of law issued by the president to direct action by the federal bureaucracy


Executive memorandum

A less powerful formal order to an agency or agencies that does not carry the force of law to undertake a particular course of action



A decision by the president not to spend money appropriated by Congress, now prohibited under federal law


Line item veto

Presidential power to strike or remove specific items from the spending bill without me telling the entire package declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court


Chief of staff

The head of the White House staff


Executive office of the president EOP

The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his or her responsibilities. Currently the office includes the office of management and budget, the Council of economic advisers, and several other units.


Office of management and budget

Hey presidential staff agency that serves as a clearinghouse for a budget requests and management improvements for government agencies



The advisory Council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments the vice President and if you other officials elected by the president


Presidential support score

The percentage of times a president wins on the key votes in Congress



The presidents claim of broad public support


Political capital

Amount of overall public approval that a president can use to win support for major decisions and proposals


Rally point

A rise in public approval of the president that follows a crisis as America rally around the flag and the chief executive


Parliamentary government

A form of government in which the chief executive is the leader of the majority party in the legislator


Describe two problems that divided government poses for the president in making federal appointments

There is a greater chance for policy or ideological conflict and it is harder to get congressional/Senate/C legislator approval/confirmation/ratification of appointments


Identify and explain two ways presidents try to overcome the problems of a divided government

To generate public support for him/herself by using resources like media and to compromise on choices by making ideological compromises that fit satisfy both parties


Identify two formal constitutional powers of The president in making foreign-policy

Appointment power and State of the Union address


What is mandatory spending

Spending not controlled by annual budget decisions on discretionary spending automatic spending. To treat constraints make it difficult to accomplish policy goals it is difficult to make budget cuts that might accomplish policy goals


What is party polarization

Increased interparty differences

Opposing party may block a policy goals. There is a lack of moderates with whom to build coalitions


What is a lame duck period

. Of time in which an officeholders term is coming to an end

Presidents powers perceived as being diminished Congress is less responsive to the president


Describe the primary constitutional conflict between Congress and the president over the decision to go to war

Congress has power to declare war president is commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces


Describe two provisions of the war Powers resolution that were designed to limit the president's power over warmaking

President has power to deploy troops but must notify Congress within 48 hours conflicts are limited to 60 days unless Congress takes action extend or withdraw with notification of president


Identify and explain two other formal powers congress has over war making

Appropriation (funding)
Treaty ratification
Enact legislation (war powers resolution)


2 reasons the framers created a bicameral legislature

Great compromise
Balance, protecting minority interests (not based on population)


One power unique to the House of Representatives and why it was given

Initiate revenue bills- bring charges of impeachment closer to the people, more representivdbe because of the two year terms


One power unique to senate and why it was granted

Confirm appointments
Originally intended to be more insulated from public opinion


Two advantages the majority party in the house of reps has in lawmaking above and beyond the numerical advantage that that majority party enjoys in floor voting

Chooses speaker of the house, holds majority on each committee, assigns bills to committees, sets the agenda, controls Dear lord pray I never lose my vibrato


Two differences between the house and senate rules that may make it likely that legislation may pass in one chamber but not in the other

House formal procedures and rules no filibuster no unanimous 2/3


How can the difference between house and senate lead to the passing of a bill in one chamber but not in the other

Filibuster- even though the house may pass a bill, he senate can kill the bill with a filibuster (extended debate)
Holds- even though the house may pass a bill, the senate can delay or stop it with a hold