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Single-member district

And electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official


Proportional representation

An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats correspondence with proportion of the vote


Elect oral college

The elect oral system used in electing the president and vice president in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates


Candidate appeal

Tendency in elections to focus on the person's attributes of the candidate such as his or her strengths weaknesses background experience and visibility


National tide

The inclination to focus on national issues rather than local issues in an election campaign. The impact of a national title can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who may have differentiated themselves from the party words leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election


Name recognition

Incubants have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them and incumbents are more recognizable



A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform


National party convention

A national meeting of delegates selected in primaries, caucuses, or state convention who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president ratify the party platform elect officers and adopt rules


Federal election commission

A commission created by the 1974 amendments to the federal election campaign act minister election reform laws it consists of six commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. It's duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information public funding of presidential elections and enforcing contribution limits


Bipartisan campaign reform act

Large the band party soft money, restored a long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for elect oral purposes, and narrow to the definition of issue advocacy


Soft money

Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party building purposes. Now largely the illegal except for Limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get out the vote efforts



Political contributions given to a party candidate or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds hence the term hard money


Issue advocacy

Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by the interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate avoiding words like vote for and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation


Independent expenditures

Money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office


Super PACs

An independent expenditure only committee first allowed into thousand 10 after court decision allowed unlimited contributions to such PACs super PACs were important into the 2010 and 2012 elections


Winner take it all system

An election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins


List of the populist states

California Texas Ohio Illinois Florida and New York


Which are the first two states to pick delegates

Iowa and New Hampshire


Define congressional reapportionment

Congressional reapportionment is the allocation of the number of representatives each state has in the House of Representatives according to state population


Why is congressional reapportionment important to states

It is important to state because more representatives mean that he state has more influence in the elect oral college


Define congressional district

The read drawing of a house and congressional, but not senate, district lines


Explain two goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting

One to increase the strength of a political party and minimize the strength of the opposition party

To increase or decrease minority representation depending on which helps the party


Explain to limits that the US Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting

1. districts must be equally populated
2. District lines cannot violate civil rights