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A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term



The term founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups



A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted powered by anyone group


Interest group

A collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying


Social movement

A large body of people interested in common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions not just policies


Open shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment


Closed shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment


Free rider

An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet received the benefit of the groups influence


Professional associations

Groups of individuals who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to that profession


Nongovernmental organization

A nonprofit association or group operating outside government that advocates and pursues policy objectives


Collective action

How groups form and organized to pursue their goals and objectives's, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science sociology and economics


Public choice

Synonyms with collective action specifically studies how government officials politician and loaders respond to positive and negative incentives



Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators and the policies they enact


Federal register

An official document published every weekday that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies


Amicus curiae brief

Literally a friend of the court brief, filed by an individual Or organization urging the supreme court to hear a case (or discouraging it from doing so) or at the merits stage, to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case


Super PACs

Independent expenditure only packs are known as super packed because they may except donations of any size and can endorse candidates. Their contributions and expenditures must be periodically reported the FEC



A tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle thus increasing the packs influence



A person who is employed by and ask for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches


Revolving door

Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern


Issue network

Relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees and the government agencies that share a common policy concern


Political action committee or PAC

The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates for political parties


Leadership PAC

APAC formed by and officeholder that collects contributions from individuals and other parks and then make contributions to other candidates and political parties


Bipartisan campaign reform act

Largely band party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electro purposes, and near of the definition of issue advocacy


Independent expenditures

The Supreme Court has ruled the individuals groups and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual group or party just so they are making an independent expenditure


Issue advocacy

Unlimited an undisclosed spending by individual or group on communications that do not use words like vote for or vote against although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates


527 organization

A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may except and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they do not spend on broadcast ads running last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified for two and a relevant collect were late is targeted



The process in which a union represents a group of employees in negotiations with the employer about wages, benefits, and workplace safety