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Describe the message the cartoon about conveys about presidential elections

Emphasis on the power of the swing states, how are presidential candidates are focused on winning the states with key number of electoral votes


Explain why California Texas and New York do not appear prominently in the cartoon above

Those states consistently have voted for the same parties New York and California democratic and Texas Republican so one can easily project how though go though they are important because of their large number of elect oral votes


Define party polarization

It refers to cases in which an individual stance on a given issue, policy, or person is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a particular political party or ideology


Describe two causes of party polarization in Congress

Changing social conditions and government actions have combined prompt fundamental disagreement about what and how much government should do second, along turn realignment brought this debate into sharp focus in short today's polarization is the product of today's issues in yesterday's political realignment


Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process

Influence political policy and promote issue awareness


Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process

Organize competition
unify the electro rate
organize their own political party shed light on issues


What is one reason that the framers chose to use the electoral college as a method to elect the president

Famers did not trust the average citizen to be educated enough to make the decision, fear of the tyranny of the majority


Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process

Support political parties
Gives money
involved in litigation
influence of the media


One of the forms of the poor you described in C explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process

Quid pro quo: both the political party plus the interest group help each other accomplished both aims of the groups
Influence of the media: get their ideas out there more support


Describe the winner take all feature of the elect oral college

The majority winner of the state gets all the electoral votes for that state


Explain one way in which the winner take all feature of the elect oral college affects how presidential candidates from the two major parties run their campaigns

One. Presidential candidates tend to focus their campaign media and money on the swing states where voters are not known
2.always go to democratic or republican to president candidate always tend to pick vice president to balance the ticket originally


Explain one way in which the winner take all feature of the elect oral college Anders third-party candidates

1. Third-party candidates make it a large percentage of the pop if they don't carry state
2. Because it's difficult to win electrical votes, it makes it harder for third-party candidates to raise funds and gain resources


Explain to college has not been abolished

The electro college has been part of the US is history and tradition and to abolish it would require a constitutional amendment
Savers small states because each collector actually represents fewer people


Explain to provisions in the Bill of Rights to protect individuals who try to influence politics

Speech press assembly and petition


How are grassroots mobilization used by interest groups to exert influence over policy

Interest groups organize citizens, who act to influence policymakers


How is lobbying of government institutions used by interest groups to exert influence over policy

Direct contact with policymakers for the purpose of persuasion through the provisions of information, political benefits etc.


How is litigation used by interest groups to exert influence over policy

The use of courts to gain policy preferences through cases for amicus curiae


Describe one specific federal government regulation of interest groups

Campaign finance laws
Registration of lobbyists, PACs


Compare and contrast a primary with a caucus

Coccus: voting is conducted at local party meetings and is done by raising hands or breaking up into groups. Only members registered with in the political party can participate (if closed system)
Primary: an election is held/secret ballot. Depends upon the state. Some states allow only registered party members to vote while some allow party registrations on the same day. Some are completely open to all residents of the state


Republican party rules permit winner take all primaries. Describe one consequence of this rule for the Republican nomination process

Shortens timeframe for candidates wrapping up the nominations. Those with more prominence or better name recognition early in the process


The Democratic Party has used superdelegates in the presidential nominating process since 1984. Explain why the use of superdelegates increases the influence of party leaders in a democratic nomination process

Party leaders are now assured a little in the nomination process, regardless of which candidate they support, party leaders can cast the deciding vote inclusive domination contests


Explain Wayne candidate strategy to win the nomination is often different from the strategy developed to win the general election

The electorate in the primary election is different from the electorate in the general election
A candidates opponents are with in their own party in the primary where is opponents in the general elections are from other parties


Describe two important functions of political parties in the United States

Provide cues for voters
Raise funds for their candidates
Provide a platform of issues
Recruit candidates for government office
Nominate candidates for government office


Describe one important role political parties play with in Congress to promote the party spoke public policy agenda

Leadership positions in Congress are signed on a party basis
Party leaders articulate legislative policy priorities of the party
Party leaders facilitate legislative policy priorities of the party


Explain how direct primaries have we can influence the political parties over the political process

Direct primaries give parties less control over the nomination process of candidates candidates appeal directly to voters and bypass party's candidates may win who are not favored by the party elite


Explain how candidate centered campaigns have we can the influence of political parties over the political process

Candidate centered campaigns appeal directly to voters: candidates can raise money by appealing to boaters or packs directly candidates choose their own issue to campaign on


Explain how party polarization has strengthened party influence in Congress

Members of political parties boat along party lines and therefore they are less likely to crossed party lines to build with the other party


What was the campaign reform act of 1974

Created the federal elections committee all contributions over $100 were disclosed no foreign contributions established packs $5000 per candidate individual contributions $1000 per candidate presidential elections


Bipartisan campaign reform act

And soft money contributions to national political parties from corporations and unions: independent expenditures by corporations, labor unions, trade associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted


What is hyperpluralism

A state in which many groups or factions are so strong that a government is unable to function


Political cue

He signaled frequently provided by interest groups that tells a politician what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs


Prospective voting

A theory of democratic elections in which voters decide what government will do in the near future by choosing one or another responsible party