Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (46)
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters an Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money, and should be directed from above.
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal.
Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology
Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951).
Internal mechanisms directing behavior dealing with sustaining processes biologically necessary for survival such as thirst, hunger and sex.
Internal mechanisms directing learned behaviors as being desired, such as power or wealth.
For easy tasks, moderately high arousal is needed to do well.
For difficult, moderately low, and average tasks – a moderate level of arousal is needed.
Example: When first learning to drive a car, we drive best if not too anxious. Later, we may need the radio on while driving for best performance.
what are the hiercachy of neeeds from lowest to highest
belongingess and love needs
physiological aspects that make you hungry
Role of Hypothalamus
Psychological factors that make you hungry
Memory (Rozin Study)
Availability (Rodin Study)
Stomach Contractions in relation to hunger
Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger.
glucose levels in relation to hunger
The glucose level in blood is maintained. Insulin decreases glucose in the blood, making us feel hungry.
glucose helps us feel more full
lateral (side) side of hypothalamus
When stimulated, causes animals to eat
When destroyed, causes animals to starve
Ventromedial (low-middle) of hypothalamus
When stimulated, causes animals to starve
When destroyed, causes animals to eat
how are glucose signals sent to the brain
Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain.
what happens when there is a reduction in the amount of blood glucose
The reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in the LH, which leads rats to eat ravenously.
what happens durin the excitement stages
Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.
Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure.
Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release.
Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve faster.
A desire to perform a behavior for its
own sake and to be effective.