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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (46):
1

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

2


hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

3

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set

4


basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

5


sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters an Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

6


instinct

a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

7

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour

8

flow

a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

9

Theory X

assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money, and should be directed from above.

10

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

11

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

12

structural interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

13

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

14

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

15

industrial-organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces

16

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

17

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex

18

estrogen

a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

19

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

20

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

21

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

22

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues

23

incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour

24

homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

25

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

26

Theory Y

assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.

27

motivation

Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal.

28

Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology

Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951).

29

Primary Drive

Internal mechanisms directing behavior dealing with sustaining processes biologically necessary for survival such as thirst, hunger and sex.

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Secondary Drive

Internal mechanisms directing learned behaviors as being desired, such as power or wealth.

31

Yerkes-Dodson Law

For easy tasks, moderately high arousal is needed to do well.


For difficult, moderately low, and average tasks – a moderate level of arousal is needed.


Example: When first learning to drive a car, we drive best if not too anxious. Later, we may need the radio on while driving for best performance.

32

what are the hiercachy of neeeds from lowest to highest

physioligocal needs-
safety needs-
belongingess and love needs
esteem needs-
selfactualization needs-

33

physiological aspects that make you hungry

Hormones
Stomach Contractions
Glucose
Role of Hypothalamus
Set Point

34

Psychological factors that make you hungry

Garcia Effect
Memory (Rozin Study)
Availability (Rodin Study)
Attractiveness
Culture

35

Stomach Contractions in relation to hunger

Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger.

36

glucose levels in relation to hunger

The glucose level in blood is maintained. Insulin decreases glucose in the blood, making us feel hungry.
glucose helps us feel more full

37

lateral (side) side of hypothalamus

When stimulated, causes animals to eat
When destroyed, causes animals to starve

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Ventromedial (low-middle) of hypothalamus

When stimulated, causes animals to starve
When destroyed, causes animals to eat

39

how are glucose signals sent to the brain

Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and intestines. They send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain.

40

what happens when there is a reduction in the amount of blood glucose

The reduction of blood glucose stimulates orexin in the LH, which leads rats to eat ravenously.

41

what happens durin the excitement stages

Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.

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Plateau

Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure.

43

Orgasm

Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release.

44

Resolution

Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve faster.

45

Intrinsic

A desire to perform a behavior for its
own sake and to be effective.

46

Extrinsic

A desire to perform a behavior due to
a promised reward or threat of
punishment