Chapter 12 - Weight Management: Finding a Healthy Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Weight Management: Finding a Healthy Balance Deck (95):
1

more than __% of Canadian adults are considered overweight or obese

35%

2

more than __% of Canadian children are considered overweight or obese

30%

3

weight stability

calories consumed = calories expended

4

weight gain

calories consumed > calories expended

5

weight loss

calories consumed < calories expended

6

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the minimum amount of energy the body requires to carry on all vital functions

7

true or false: BMR varies throughout the lifecycle

true

8

true or false: BMR is generally lower at birth and decreases until age 2, after which is increases as life progresses

FALSE: BMR is generally higher at birth and increases until age 2, after which it decreases as life progresses

9

what are 7 factors affecting BMR?

1) body composition
2) physical fitness
3) gender (males approx. 5% higher)
4) Sleep
5) Pregnancy (20% increase)
6) Body temperature
7) age

10

the amount of energy expended through physical activity depends on what 3 things?

1) volume of exercise (time, number of workouts)
2) intensity of exercise
3) type of exercise

11

in order to efficiently lose weight what should exercise be combined with?

controlled eating patterns that involve calorie reduction

12

what are 6 benefits of exercise?

1) strengthens the heart
2) improves endurance
3) provides a means of managing stress
4) helps prevent osteoporosis
5) burns calories
6) increases metabolic rate

13

what is the most common method used in body composition analysis?

the 'Two Component' model of the body

14

what does the 'Two Component' model of the body include?

- lean body mass (LBM)
- Fat Body Mass
- Total Body fat (TBF)

15

how is lean body mass calculated?

LBM = TBM - TBF (lean body mass = total body mass minus total body fat)

16

how is total body fat calculated?

TBF = TBM x %Body Fat/100

17

what are the 2 divisions of fat body mass?

1) storage fat (SF)
2) Essential Fat (EF)

18

_______ fat is fat that accumulates as adipose tissue

storage fat

19

adipose = ____

fat

20

_______ fat serves as an energy reserve

storage fat

21

what type of fat cushions and protects internal organs?

storage fat

22

______ fat is mainly subcutaneous distribution

storage fat

23

average male storage fat = ___%

12%

24

average female storage fat = ___%

15%

25

true or false: excess storage fat is associated with numerous health problems

true

26

______ fat is required for normal physiological functioning

essential fat

27

list 9 places essential fat is present

1) bone marrow
2) heart
3) lungs
4) liver
5) spleen
6) kidneys
7) intestines
8) muscle
9) central nervous system

28

essential fat comprises about ___% of body weight for the average male

3%

29

essential fat comprises about ___% of body weight for the average female

12%

30

true or false: storage fat is gender specific

false: essential fat is gender specific

31

where is the gender-specific essential fat located/involved?

- mammary glands
- pelvic region
- involved in hormone-related functions and pregnancy

32

what are the 2 ways of measuring body fat?

1) direct measurement
2) indirect measurement

33

______ measurement of body fat involves grinding tissue

direct measurement

34

which way of measuring body fat measures fat via chemical analysis

direct measurement

35

true or false: direct measurement of body fat is impractical for living organisms

true

36

direct measurement is used with _____

cadavers

37

list 5 methods of indirect measurement of body fat

1) skin fold callipers
2) hydrostatic weighing
3) bod pod
4) bioelectrical impedance
5) DEXA

38

skin fold callipers

measure skin fold thickness to predict or estimate total body fat

39

what is skin fold calliper testing based on?

based on the assumption that subcutaneous fat is directly related to total body fat

40

what is the accuracy of skin fold calliper testing?

accuracy is +-3 when performed correctly

41

hydrostatic weighing

determines body density to be used in further equations that calculate percent body fat

42

what is hydrostatic based on?

based on archimedes' principle of water displacement - an object submerged in water yields a buoyant force equal to the weight of water displaced

43

to calculate body fat with hydrostatic weighing, what 4 measurements are needed?

1) body weight on land
2) underwater body weight
3) water density at the performed temperature
4) residual lung volume

44

what is a more accurate measure: hydrostatic weighing or skin fold callipers?

hydrostatic weighing is more accurate

45

what is a very accurate measure or body fat, but also comes with a high expense?

the bod pod

46

what can the bod pod do that hydrostatic weighing can not?

may facilitate measuring large or heavy individuals because it does not involve underwater submersion

47

what does the bod pod use to calculate body fat percentage?

air displacement

48

what is bioelectrical impedance based on?

based on differences in electrical conductivity between fat-free mass and fat mass

49

how is percent body fat calculated in BIA?

percent body fat is calculated from measures of body density determined by passing an electrical current through the body

50

what is BIA influenced by?

the subjects hydration level

51

true or false: the more hydrated someone is, the heavier the BIA measurement will be

FALSE: the more hydrated someone is, the leaner the BIA measurement will be

52

DEXA can be used to determine ___________ and can also measure bone density (bone mineral content)

body composition

53

what is an easy, inexpensive method for determining an individuals healthy body weight?

BMI (Body mass index)

54

how is BMI calculated?

BMI = Weight (Kg)/[Height (m)]2

55

what are the 3 general ranges of BMI?

1) underweight
2) healthy or acceptable weight
3) overweight (severe overweight or morbid obesity)

56

a BMI score above ___ is classified as obese and associated with an increased risk of developing health problems

30

57

true or false: health problems are associated with BMI's classified as being within the underweight range

true

58

who is the BMI intended for?

men and women aged 20-65

59

who is BMI strictly not intended for? (list 5)

1) babies
2) children
3) teenagers
4) pregnant women
5) very muscular people, such as athletes

60

somatotyping - the human body is composed of what 3 things?

1) roundness
2) muscularity
3) linearity

61

_______ exhibit a round appearance and a predominance of the gut and visceral organs

endomorphs

62

list 3 sports that require an endomorph body type

wrestling, weight-lifting and throwing events

63

_______ exhibit a predominance of muscle

mesomorphs

64

list 3 sports that require a mesomorph body type

body building, swimming and decathlon

65

_______ exhibit a predominance of linearity and tend to be tall and thin

ectomorphs

66

list 4 sports that require a ectomorph body type

marathon, basketball, horse-racing and high-jump

67

obesity

having an excess of body fat beyond some particular standard

68

for a male (aged 17-50) to be classified as obese, their body fat percentage has to be above ____%

20%

69

for a female (aged 17-50) to be classified as obese, their body fat percentage has to be above ____%

30%

70

true or false: obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the western world

true

71

true or false: 45% of Canadian men are considered obese

FALSE: 35% of Canadian men are considered obese

72

true or false: 27% of Canadian women are considered obese

true

73

list 6 health problems associated with obesity

1) coronary heart disease
2) stroke
3) hypertension
4) Diabetes
5) Osteoarthritis
6) Some cancers

74

obese individuals are often viewed as _____ (just like to eat), however, they do not generally consume large amounts of calories

gluttonous

75

true or false: physically active individuals have been shown to consume more calories than obese individuals

true

76

is obesity more often the result of too little activity or the result of overeating?

more often the result of too little activity

77

creeping obesity

result of a long term change in energy balance that results in gradual fat gain over a period of time

78

____ extra calories per day results in 1 pound of weight gain per week.

500 extra calories

79

true or false: overweight automatically means obese

FALSE: overweight does not necessarily mean obese

80

what is important when making the distinction between overweight and obese?

body composition

81

what has happened to the weight loss industry as the obesity rates rise?

it has become a billion-dollar industry

82

what are 3 examples of fad diets?

1) high protein, low carb
2) high carb, low protein
3) limited food choice diets (grapefruit)

83

true or false: most diets are ineffective and can be hardmful

true

84

what is the best approach to weight management?

following Canada's food guide and engaging in regular physical activity

85

what 4 things can chronic dieting lead to?

1) retardation of physical growth
2) menstrual irregularities in females
3) lowered metabolic rate
4) development of eating disorders

86

what are the 2 major eating disorders within the general population?

1) anorexia nervosa
2) bulimia nervosa

87

what is a related syndrome to anorexia and bulimia?

Binge Eating Disorder (BED)

88

list 7 factors involved in the development of eating disorders

1) dissatisfaction with body image
2) distortions in thinking
3) perfectionist beliefs
4) excessive self-criticism
5) fear of fat
6) excessive dieting
7) preoccupation with food

89

individuals affected by anorexia nervosa typically weigh less than ___% of normal weight

85%

90

what are 5 symptoms with anorexia nervosa?

1) dry skin
2) amenorrhea
3) reduced bone mass
4) brittle nails
5) carotene pigmentation (yellowish appearance of the palms and soles of the feet)

91

what is bulimia nervosa characterized by?

characterized by continual episodes of binge eating followed by purging

92

binge eating disorder

involves ingesting large amounts of food without purging

93

true or false: binge eating is never encouraged

FALSE: binge eating is encouraged in some sports such as sumo wrestling and football

94

in most cases, what does binge eating lead to?

obesity

95

Female Athlete Triad (FAT)

- disordered eating: poor diet choices to extremes of anorexia or bulimia
- amenorrhea
- osteoporosis