Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Weight Management: Finding a Healthy Balance Deck (95):
more than __% of Canadian adults are considered overweight or obese
more than __% of Canadian children are considered overweight or obese
calories consumed = calories expended
calories consumed > calories expended
calories consumed < calories expended
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the minimum amount of energy the body requires to carry on all vital functions
true or false: BMR varies throughout the lifecycle
true or false: BMR is generally lower at birth and decreases until age 2, after which is increases as life progresses
FALSE: BMR is generally higher at birth and increases until age 2, after which it decreases as life progresses
what are 7 factors affecting BMR?
1) body composition
2) physical fitness
3) gender (males approx. 5% higher)
5) Pregnancy (20% increase)
6) Body temperature
the amount of energy expended through physical activity depends on what 3 things?
1) volume of exercise (time, number of workouts)
2) intensity of exercise
3) type of exercise
in order to efficiently lose weight what should exercise be combined with?
controlled eating patterns that involve calorie reduction
what are 6 benefits of exercise?
1) strengthens the heart
2) improves endurance
3) provides a means of managing stress
4) helps prevent osteoporosis
5) burns calories
6) increases metabolic rate
what is the most common method used in body composition analysis?
the 'Two Component' model of the body
what does the 'Two Component' model of the body include?
- lean body mass (LBM)
- Fat Body Mass
- Total Body fat (TBF)
how is lean body mass calculated?
LBM = TBM - TBF (lean body mass = total body mass minus total body fat)
how is total body fat calculated?
TBF = TBM x %Body Fat/100
what are the 2 divisions of fat body mass?
1) storage fat (SF)
2) Essential Fat (EF)
_______ fat is fat that accumulates as adipose tissue
adipose = ____
_______ fat serves as an energy reserve
what type of fat cushions and protects internal organs?
______ fat is mainly subcutaneous distribution
average male storage fat = ___%
average female storage fat = ___%
true or false: excess storage fat is associated with numerous health problems
______ fat is required for normal physiological functioning
list 9 places essential fat is present
1) bone marrow
9) central nervous system
essential fat comprises about ___% of body weight for the average male
essential fat comprises about ___% of body weight for the average female
true or false: storage fat is gender specific
false: essential fat is gender specific
where is the gender-specific essential fat located/involved?
- mammary glands
- pelvic region
- involved in hormone-related functions and pregnancy
what are the 2 ways of measuring body fat?
1) direct measurement
2) indirect measurement
______ measurement of body fat involves grinding tissue
which way of measuring body fat measures fat via chemical analysis
true or false: direct measurement of body fat is impractical for living organisms
direct measurement is used with _____
list 5 methods of indirect measurement of body fat
1) skin fold callipers
2) hydrostatic weighing
3) bod pod
4) bioelectrical impedance
skin fold callipers
measure skin fold thickness to predict or estimate total body fat
what is skin fold calliper testing based on?
based on the assumption that subcutaneous fat is directly related to total body fat
what is the accuracy of skin fold calliper testing?
accuracy is +-3 when performed correctly
determines body density to be used in further equations that calculate percent body fat
what is hydrostatic based on?
based on archimedes' principle of water displacement - an object submerged in water yields a buoyant force equal to the weight of water displaced
to calculate body fat with hydrostatic weighing, what 4 measurements are needed?
1) body weight on land
2) underwater body weight
3) water density at the performed temperature
4) residual lung volume
what is a more accurate measure: hydrostatic weighing or skin fold callipers?
hydrostatic weighing is more accurate
what is a very accurate measure or body fat, but also comes with a high expense?
the bod pod
what can the bod pod do that hydrostatic weighing can not?
may facilitate measuring large or heavy individuals because it does not involve underwater submersion
what does the bod pod use to calculate body fat percentage?
what is bioelectrical impedance based on?
based on differences in electrical conductivity between fat-free mass and fat mass
how is percent body fat calculated in BIA?
percent body fat is calculated from measures of body density determined by passing an electrical current through the body
what is BIA influenced by?
the subjects hydration level
true or false: the more hydrated someone is, the heavier the BIA measurement will be
FALSE: the more hydrated someone is, the leaner the BIA measurement will be
DEXA can be used to determine ___________ and can also measure bone density (bone mineral content)
what is an easy, inexpensive method for determining an individuals healthy body weight?
BMI (Body mass index)
how is BMI calculated?
BMI = Weight (Kg)/[Height (m)]2
what are the 3 general ranges of BMI?
2) healthy or acceptable weight
3) overweight (severe overweight or morbid obesity)
a BMI score above ___ is classified as obese and associated with an increased risk of developing health problems
true or false: health problems are associated with BMI's classified as being within the underweight range
who is the BMI intended for?
men and women aged 20-65
who is BMI strictly not intended for? (list 5)
4) pregnant women
5) very muscular people, such as athletes
somatotyping - the human body is composed of what 3 things?
_______ exhibit a round appearance and a predominance of the gut and visceral organs
list 3 sports that require an endomorph body type
wrestling, weight-lifting and throwing events
_______ exhibit a predominance of muscle
list 3 sports that require a mesomorph body type
body building, swimming and decathlon
_______ exhibit a predominance of linearity and tend to be tall and thin
list 4 sports that require a ectomorph body type
marathon, basketball, horse-racing and high-jump
having an excess of body fat beyond some particular standard
for a male (aged 17-50) to be classified as obese, their body fat percentage has to be above ____%
for a female (aged 17-50) to be classified as obese, their body fat percentage has to be above ____%
true or false: obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the western world
true or false: 45% of Canadian men are considered obese
FALSE: 35% of Canadian men are considered obese
true or false: 27% of Canadian women are considered obese
list 6 health problems associated with obesity
1) coronary heart disease
6) Some cancers
obese individuals are often viewed as _____ (just like to eat), however, they do not generally consume large amounts of calories
true or false: physically active individuals have been shown to consume more calories than obese individuals
is obesity more often the result of too little activity or the result of overeating?
more often the result of too little activity
result of a long term change in energy balance that results in gradual fat gain over a period of time
____ extra calories per day results in 1 pound of weight gain per week.
500 extra calories
true or false: overweight automatically means obese
FALSE: overweight does not necessarily mean obese
what is important when making the distinction between overweight and obese?
what has happened to the weight loss industry as the obesity rates rise?
it has become a billion-dollar industry
what are 3 examples of fad diets?
1) high protein, low carb
2) high carb, low protein
3) limited food choice diets (grapefruit)
true or false: most diets are ineffective and can be hardmful
what is the best approach to weight management?
following Canada's food guide and engaging in regular physical activity
what 4 things can chronic dieting lead to?
1) retardation of physical growth
2) menstrual irregularities in females
3) lowered metabolic rate
4) development of eating disorders
what are the 2 major eating disorders within the general population?
1) anorexia nervosa
2) bulimia nervosa
what is a related syndrome to anorexia and bulimia?
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
list 7 factors involved in the development of eating disorders
1) dissatisfaction with body image
2) distortions in thinking
3) perfectionist beliefs
4) excessive self-criticism
5) fear of fat
6) excessive dieting
7) preoccupation with food
individuals affected by anorexia nervosa typically weigh less than ___% of normal weight
what are 5 symptoms with anorexia nervosa?
1) dry skin
3) reduced bone mass
4) brittle nails
5) carotene pigmentation (yellowish appearance of the palms and soles of the feet)
what is bulimia nervosa characterized by?
characterized by continual episodes of binge eating followed by purging
binge eating disorder
involves ingesting large amounts of food without purging
true or false: binge eating is never encouraged
FALSE: binge eating is encouraged in some sports such as sumo wrestling and football
in most cases, what does binge eating lead to?