Flashcards in Chapter 14 - The Mental Side of Human Performance Deck (109)
a discriminating factor between individuals high and low in achievement motivation
how is self confidence similar to the motive to achieve success?
the confident athlete has a high motive to succeed and a high expectation for success
what is self efficacy based on?
individual's belief that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task
why is self-efficacy used in sport psychology?
because the sporting environment represents a very specific situation
true or false: self efficacy is situation specific self confidence
what are 4 ways self efficacy can be enhanced?
1) successful performance
2) vicarious experience
3) verbal persuasion
4) emotional arousal
what is the most important factor in improving self-efficacy? why?
successful performance because it raises expectations for future successes; while failure lowers these expectations
what are the 3 steps to get the best successful performance results?
1) break down skill learning into small steps to insure success early
2) practice, practice, practice
3) highlighting successes and downplaying setbacks
demonstrating repeated success through participatory modelling (i.e., the subject first observes a model perform a task)
what are the 3 steps to get the best results from vicarious experience
1) employ participatory modelling before the athlete attempts the skill on his/her own
2) utilize only models who are technically correct in their execution
3) ensure successful execution by the athlete in the early stages of learning
constant provision of encouragement, as well as specific skill instructions
what are the 3 steps for best results in verbal persuasion?
1) provide specific rather than general feedback
2) have the athlete repeat your instructions back to you before beginning
3) focus on the positive aspects of the athletes performance
an optimal level of arousal is required to develop self-efficacy
true or false: too much or too little arousal will impact negatively on the development of self-efficacy
what are the 3 steps to get the best results from emotional arousal
1) in the early stages of learning, keep things relaxed
2) get to know athletes one-on-one. some will need more arousal, while others less
3) help athletes recognize when they need to "psych-up or calm-down"
what are 7 goal setting strategies for maximum motivation?
1) set goals that are observable, measurable and achievable
2) set realistic, yet challenging goals
3) set positive goals, not negative goals (such as don't lose)
4) coaches and teachers should negotiate goals for their athletes or students, not mandate them
5) set short-term as well as long-term goals
6) set goals for your practices, as well as your actual competitions
7) set goals related to the athletes performance or technical execution, not contest outcome (win vs. lose)
what type of approach to motivation is the attribution theory?
attribution theory is a cognitive approach to motivation
what does attribution theory assume?
that people strive to explain, understand and predict events based upon their own perceptions
true or false: what the athlete believes has nothing to do with future motivation
FALSE: what the athlete believes to be true is important for future motivation
what are the 2 ways outcomes can be attributed?
1) internally - to the person (personal force)
2) externally - to the environment (environmental force)
what are internal outcomes composed of?
ability and effort
what are external outcomes composed of?
task difficulty and luck
relatively unchanging from one day to the next (ability and task difficulty)
vary markedly from time to time (effort and luck)
what do the internal attributions of locus of control include?
attributes perceived as controllable (ability and effort)
what do the external attributions of locus of control include?
perceptions perceived to be outside the athlete's control (task of difficulty and luck)
what should the athlete be encouraged to focus on before competition? what should the athlete be encouraged not to focus on before competition? why?
should be encouraged to focus on effort, not ability. both effort and ability are within athletes control, but effort is unstable from game to game
why must athletes focus on preparing strategies that be effective against task difficulty (e.g. an opposing team) vs luck?
because both luck and task difficulty are beyond athletes control, but task difficulty is stable and predictable