Chapter 14 - The Mental Side of Human Performance Flashcards Preview

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how are different emotions experienced?

with different causal attributions and outcomes


after a success, how does an athlete attribute the success internally? externally?

internally, they typically respond with pride, confidence and satisfaction
externally, they will likely feel gratitude and thankfulness


causal attributions --> future expectation --> ______



what tends to happen whenever an outcome is different than what was expected based on past experience?

the athlete tends to endorse an unstable attribution (e.g., effort or luck)


what happens when an outcome is as expected, based on past performances?

a stable attribution (e.g., ability or task difficulty) is endorsed


why is it beneficial to ascribe failures to unstable causes?

it does not imply repeated failure


what are the 3 implications to predicting future expectations from present attributions?

1) athletes should attribute a failure to unstable and internal cause; i.e., lack of effort
2) this suggests that more effort can change the next outcome from failure to success
3) it teaches the athlete to accept responsibility for the results


what does future expectancy depend on?

depends on stability of the attributions


what 2 things to promotion self efficacy and motivation for future performance depend on?

depends on both expectancy and locus of control


athletes who succeed should be encouraged to attribute the success to both stable and internal factors. why?

a stable attribution will improve the athlete's expectancy for future success and an internal attribution will enhance the athlete's self-confidence


what are 4 attributional training strategies learning to improved self-efficacy in future events?

1) record and classify attributions after performances
2) after each outcome make attributions that will lead to promotion of self-efficacy
3) provide an attributional training program for athletes who consistently utilize undesirable attributions
4) for best results, combine planned goal-setting with attributional training


spectator effect

an important social-psychological effect on athletic performance


spectator effect influences athlete's performance through? (2 answers)

1) social facilitation - enhancement of performance due to presence of others
2) Rivalry - a desire to beat the other opponent


Social facilitation can be further broken down into what 2 effects?

1) Audience effects - a situation involving the mere presence of other individuals in the same room or area
2) Coaction effects - other people are present, but are performing the same task


true or false: spectator effect divides into rivalry and social facilitation. social facilitation then divides into audience effects and coaction effects



what happens if the athlete perceives the audience to be important and/or knowledgeable?

then drive level is increased


what happens if the athlete perceives the audience t be unimportant and/or not knowledgeable?

then drive level is decreased


what is the mot popular explanation for home advantage?

the presence of supportive audience


what research has been established following audience characteristics leading to a greater home advantage?

- large
- supportive
- close to the playing arena (i.e., high intimacy and density)