Chapter 14 - The Mental Side of Human Performance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - The Mental Side of Human Performance Deck (109):
1

what is the chinese and greek civilizations history of sport psychology? (quotation)

"healthy mind in a healthy body"

2

when was the first sport psychology research done? what was researched?

1800s - the effects of audience on cyclist performance

3

what has been recognized and grown over the past 3 decades?

sport psychology discipline

4

what are the 2 reasons sport psychology has recently developed and grown?

1) expansion of scientific knowledge and emergence of different branches
2) increased media attention

5

personality

pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish one person from another and persist over time and situations

6

what 4 questions can the study of personality in sport psychology help us answer?

1) do athletes possess different personality characteristics than non-athletes?
2) do winners possess different personality profiles than losers?
3) does personality determine sport preference, or does a particular sport mould our personality accordingly?
4) can personality be changed, or does it remain relatively fixed throughout involvement in sport

7

compared to non-athletes, athletes are more...?

stable, extroverted, competitive, dominant, self-confident, achievement-oriented, psychologically well-adjusted, conservative with respect to political views, authoritarian, persistent, display higher levels of self-esteem

8

true or false: [about athletes vs non-athletes] although differences are known to exist, a clear pattern of differences has yet to emerge

true

9

personality traits

psychological characteristics of the athlete which remain relatively stable over time

10

personality states

"right now kind of feelings" which are situation-specific

11

state-trait controversy

disagreement of the relative merits of studying states versus traits

12

interactional theory

the best state-trait approach, which considers personality traits and states, as well as situation-specific factors

13

true or false: it is possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traits

FALSE: it is NOT yet possible to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful athletes using personality traits

14

it is possible to distinguish between the elite athletes and the less skilled in terms of _______

mood states

15

mood states of elite athletes vs. lesser skilled athletes are lower in what 5 categories?

1) tension
2) depression
3) anger
4) fatigue
5) confusion

16

mood states of elite athletes vs. lesser skilled athletes are higher in what category?

vigor

17

iceberg profile

mood state profile that resembles an iceberg

18

are personality differences due to the athletic experience or do certain personality traits cause the individual to go out for sports (gravitational hypothesis)?

evidence tends to support the gravitational hypothesis, however, participation in sports can also enhance personality development

19

are athletes or non-athletes more extroverted, independent, self confident and less anxious?

athletes

20

true or false: elite athletes can be distinguished from lesser skilled athletes however winners and losers cannot be distinguished

true

21

how are elite athletes distinguished from lesser skilled athletes?

iceberg profile

22

true or false: sports can enhance personality traits, and personality traits can enhance sport

true

23

arousal

physiological state of readiness and psychological activation

24

what part of the nervous system does arousal involve?

autonomic nervous system

25

arousal is the bodys way of preparing us for what?

"fight or flight"

26

stress

non specific response of the body to any demand made upon it, unemotional bodily response to some type of stressor

27

true or false: stress can be only bad

FALSE: stress can be good or bad, depending upon the individuals personal interpretation

28

______ is positive stress (e.g., winning a lottery)

eustress

29

_____ is negative stress (e.g., receiving a failing grade on a midterm test)

distress

30

what are the 2 components of state anxiety?

1)cognitive state anxiety
2)somatic state anxiety

31

cognitive state anxiety

- psychological component
- caused by fear of failure
- result of worrying
- "I am afraid I am going to lose"

32

somatic state anxiety

- physical component
- perception of physiological responses
- "i feel nervous before a major contest" sweaty palms, dry mouth, upset stomach

33

as competition approaches there are _______ changes in cognitive and somatic state anxiety

temporal changes

34

the relationship between somatic anxiety and performance takes the form of an inverted __

U

35

the relationship between cognitive anxiety and athletic performance has been shown to be ______ and _______

linear and negative

36

increases in somatic anxiety are associated with improved athletic performance up to a certain optimal level; therefore, athletes should attempt to increase their somatic anxiety up to an optimal level by doing what?

"psyching up"

37

true or false: the lower the level of cognitive state anxiety, the better the athlete will perform

true

38

list 12 symptoms of distress

1) cold, clammy hands
2) cotton mouth
3) unable to concentrate
4) desire to urinate often
5) diarrhea
6) feeling of fatigue
7) Increased heart rate
8) faster breathing
9) trembling hands
10) tense muscles
11) nausea
12) voice distortion

39

what are 3 relaxation interventions to lower cognitive state anxiety?

1) Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR)
2) Positive Imagery
3) Positive Self-talk

40

how long does Progressive Muscular Relaxation (PMR) take?

takes time initially, but with practice can be completed in a matter of minutes

41

when is PMR especially valuable?

the night before

42

what are the 4 steeps to PMR?

1) lie or sit in a comfortable position
2) inhale and tense a specific muscle group for approximately 5 seconds
3) exhale and release the tension from the muscles, concentrating on the feeling of relaxation
4) repeated for a number of muscle groups

43

what does positive imagery require to be effective?

practice

44

what are the 2 steps to positive imagery?

1) close eyes and picture yourself performing well in the specific anxiety-causing performance environment
2) imagine the positive feelings associated with this successful imagery

45

what is positive self talk?

reassuring oneself with positive thoughts and statements

46

what is an example of positive self talk?

"Im a good free throw shooter" vs. "What will the coach think of me if i blow this shot?"

47

________ determines the reasons for an athletes behaviour

motivation

48

motivation

the direction, energy and intensity of behaviour

49

what is motivation synonymous with?

inspiration, enthusiasm, or the will to win

50

achievement motivation

athletes predisposition to approach or avoid a competitive situation

51

what concept does achievement motivation include?

concept of desire, or desire to excel

52

true or false: achievement motivation is not an innate drive, but is likely learned in the sporting environment

true

53

the original McClelland-Atkinson Model suggests that the achievement motivation is a function of what 2 things?

1) the motive to achieve success
2) the fear of failure

54

the motive to achieve success

an athletes intrinsic motivation to engage in an exciting activity

55

the fear of failure

a psychological construct associated with cognitive state anxiety

56

achievement motivation = _____________ - __________

achievement motivation = intrinsic motivation - cognitive state anxiety

57

True or false: McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement motivation could predict athletic success

FALSE: McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement motivation could NOT predict athletic success

58

what was added to the original model of McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement so that it could predict athletic success?

extrinsic motivation

59

what does the modified McClelland-Atkinson model of achievement motivation acknowledge?

acknowledges that factors external to the athlete may influence individual's overall motivation

60

what 3 factors affect achievement motivation?

1) self confidence
2) self efficacy
3) goal setting

61

self-confidence

a discriminating factor between individuals high and low in achievement motivation

62

how is self confidence similar to the motive to achieve success?

the confident athlete has a high motive to succeed and a high expectation for success

63

what is self efficacy based on?

bandura's model

64

self efficacy

individual's belief that he or she is capable of succeeding at a particular task

65

why is self-efficacy used in sport psychology?

because the sporting environment represents a very specific situation

66

true or false: self efficacy is situation specific self confidence

true

67

what are 4 ways self efficacy can be enhanced?

1) successful performance
2) vicarious experience
3) verbal persuasion
4) emotional arousal

68

what is the most important factor in improving self-efficacy? why?

successful performance because it raises expectations for future successes; while failure lowers these expectations

69

what are the 3 steps to get the best successful performance results?

1) break down skill learning into small steps to insure success early
2) practice, practice, practice
3) highlighting successes and downplaying setbacks

70

vicarious experience

demonstrating repeated success through participatory modelling (i.e., the subject first observes a model perform a task)

71

what are the 3 steps to get the best results from vicarious experience

1) employ participatory modelling before the athlete attempts the skill on his/her own
2) utilize only models who are technically correct in their execution
3) ensure successful execution by the athlete in the early stages of learning

72

verbal persuasion

constant provision of encouragement, as well as specific skill instructions

73

what are the 3 steps for best results in verbal persuasion?

1) provide specific rather than general feedback
2) have the athlete repeat your instructions back to you before beginning
3) focus on the positive aspects of the athletes performance

74

emotional arousal

an optimal level of arousal is required to develop self-efficacy

75

true or false: too much or too little arousal will impact negatively on the development of self-efficacy

true

76

what are the 3 steps to get the best results from emotional arousal

1) in the early stages of learning, keep things relaxed
2) get to know athletes one-on-one. some will need more arousal, while others less
3) help athletes recognize when they need to "psych-up or calm-down"

77

what are 7 goal setting strategies for maximum motivation?

1) set goals that are observable, measurable and achievable
2) set realistic, yet challenging goals
3) set positive goals, not negative goals (such as don't lose)
4) coaches and teachers should negotiate goals for their athletes or students, not mandate them
5) set short-term as well as long-term goals
6) set goals for your practices, as well as your actual competitions
7) set goals related to the athletes performance or technical execution, not contest outcome (win vs. lose)

78

what type of approach to motivation is the attribution theory?

attribution theory is a cognitive approach to motivation

79

what does attribution theory assume?

that people strive to explain, understand and predict events based upon their own perceptions

80

true or false: what the athlete believes has nothing to do with future motivation

FALSE: what the athlete believes to be true is important for future motivation

81

what are the 2 ways outcomes can be attributed?

1) internally - to the person (personal force)
2) externally - to the environment (environmental force)

82

what are internal outcomes composed of?

ability and effort

83

what are external outcomes composed of?

task difficulty and luck

84

stable attributions

relatively unchanging from one day to the next (ability and task difficulty)

85

unstable attributions

vary markedly from time to time (effort and luck)

86

what do the internal attributions of locus of control include?

attributes perceived as controllable (ability and effort)

87

what do the external attributions of locus of control include?

perceptions perceived to be outside the athlete's control (task of difficulty and luck)

88

what should the athlete be encouraged to focus on before competition? what should the athlete be encouraged not to focus on before competition? why?

should be encouraged to focus on effort, not ability. both effort and ability are within athletes control, but effort is unstable from game to game

89

why must athletes focus on preparing strategies that be effective against task difficulty (e.g. an opposing team) vs luck?

because both luck and task difficulty are beyond athletes control, but task difficulty is stable and predictable

90

true or false: after a victory, an athlete is going to feel more pride if he/she believes that the win was a result of an effort or ability rather than an opponent's poor ability or a lucky call from the referee

true

91

how are different emotions experienced?

with different causal attributions and outcomes

92

after a success, how does an athlete attribute the success internally? externally?

internally, they typically respond with pride, confidence and satisfaction
externally, they will likely feel gratitude and thankfulness

93

causal attributions --> future expectation --> ______

motivation

94

what tends to happen whenever an outcome is different than what was expected based on past experience?

the athlete tends to endorse an unstable attribution (e.g., effort or luck)

95

what happens when an outcome is as expected, based on past performances?

a stable attribution (e.g., ability or task difficulty) is endorsed

96

why is it beneficial to ascribe failures to unstable causes?

it does not imply repeated failure

97

what are the 3 implications to predicting future expectations from present attributions?

1) athletes should attribute a failure to unstable and internal cause; i.e., lack of effort
2) this suggests that more effort can change the next outcome from failure to success
3) it teaches the athlete to accept responsibility for the results

98

what does future expectancy depend on?

depends on stability of the attributions

99

what 2 things to promotion self efficacy and motivation for future performance depend on?

depends on both expectancy and locus of control

100

athletes who succeed should be encouraged to attribute the success to both stable and internal factors. why?

a stable attribution will improve the athlete's expectancy for future success and an internal attribution will enhance the athlete's self-confidence

101

what are 4 attributional training strategies learning to improved self-efficacy in future events?

1) record and classify attributions after performances
2) after each outcome make attributions that will lead to promotion of self-efficacy
3) provide an attributional training program for athletes who consistently utilize undesirable attributions
4) for best results, combine planned goal-setting with attributional training

102

spectator effect

an important social-psychological effect on athletic performance

103

spectator effect influences athlete's performance through? (2 answers)

1) social facilitation - enhancement of performance due to presence of others
2) Rivalry - a desire to beat the other opponent

104

Social facilitation can be further broken down into what 2 effects?

1) Audience effects - a situation involving the mere presence of other individuals in the same room or area
2) Coaction effects - other people are present, but are performing the same task

105

true or false: spectator effect divides into rivalry and social facilitation. social facilitation then divides into audience effects and coaction effects

true

106

what happens if the athlete perceives the audience to be important and/or knowledgeable?

then drive level is increased

107

what happens if the athlete perceives the audience t be unimportant and/or not knowledgeable?

then drive level is decreased

108

what is the mot popular explanation for home advantage?

the presence of supportive audience

109

what research has been established following audience characteristics leading to a greater home advantage?

- large
- supportive
- close to the playing arena (i.e., high intimacy and density)