Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61)
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31

heredity

genetic information that is passed on from generation to generation

32

what are genes also affected by?

environmental factors

33

what could malnutrition prevent?

could prevent an individual from growing to their maximum potential height

34

true or false: adequate nutrients are essential for growth and development

true

35

______ and _______ are primarily used for energy

carbohydrates and fats

36

_______ contribute to growth and repair of body tissues, including muscle

proteins

37

______, ________, and _______ are also essential for various functions and reactions that occur in the body

vitamins, minerals and water

38

_______ can delay growth

malnutrition/undernourishment

39

true or false: undernourishment only exists in countries with little food supplies

FALSE: undernourishment exists even in countries with abundant food supplies

40

what 2 things is body size related to?

1) socioeconomic status
2) nutrition

41

what 4 things does socio-economic status affect?

1) income
2) education
3) time
4) availability

42

what are 3 factors other than socio-economic status that may contribute to the differences observed in growth and development among individuals?

1) lower levels of stress
2) better sleeping patterns
3) regular exercise

43

what are 3 positives of exercise and bone development?

1) regular exercise tends to increase the diameter and density of bone
2) increased strength and durability
3) increased length of non-weight bearing bones such as the arms

44

what are 2 negatives of exercise and bone development?

1) overuse injuries can be incurred by young children who over-train
2) too much strain on a bone during a period of growth can lead to osteochondrosis

45

osterochondrosis

the derangement of the normal process of bone growth

46

active children and teenagers show what 3 things?

1) an increase in lean body mass
2) a decrease in percent body fat
3) muscle hypertrophy with exercise

47

what can pressure by parents and coaches do?

hinder the development of an active lifestyle and cause stress

48

perceptual motor development

the use of movement activities to enhance academic or intellectual performance

49

who developed the perceptual motor development theory?

Kephart - over 30 years ago

50

what did kephart believe?

that learning deficiencies resulted from the inability to properly integrate present stimuli with the stored information concerning past stimuli

51

what does kepharts theory suggest?

suggests that participation in basic forms of movement may improve reading and writing skills

52

stature

refers to a persons standing height

53

body length is measured in infants while the child is ____

supine

54

true or false: there is little difference in average length between males and females at birth

true
boys = 50.5 cm
girls = 49.9 cm

55

by then end of the first year how long are boys? girls?

boys = 75 cm
girls = 74.1 cm

56

true or false: after 2 years, stature increases more slowly, until adolescence

true

57

how much do girls grow per year on average? boys?

girls = 8cm/year avg
boys = 10 cm/year avg

58

when is peak height achieved in boys? girls?

boys = 18
girls = 16.5

59

usually there is no change in stature after age ___

30

60

why does height sometimes begin to decrease after age 45?

due to a degeneration of inter vertebral disks