Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Growth and Development Deck (61)
genetic information that is passed on from generation to generation
what are genes also affected by?
what could malnutrition prevent?
could prevent an individual from growing to their maximum potential height
true or false: adequate nutrients are essential for growth and development
______ and _______ are primarily used for energy
carbohydrates and fats
_______ contribute to growth and repair of body tissues, including muscle
______, ________, and _______ are also essential for various functions and reactions that occur in the body
vitamins, minerals and water
_______ can delay growth
true or false: undernourishment only exists in countries with little food supplies
FALSE: undernourishment exists even in countries with abundant food supplies
what 2 things is body size related to?
1) socioeconomic status
what 4 things does socio-economic status affect?
what are 3 factors other than socio-economic status that may contribute to the differences observed in growth and development among individuals?
1) lower levels of stress
2) better sleeping patterns
3) regular exercise
what are 3 positives of exercise and bone development?
1) regular exercise tends to increase the diameter and density of bone
2) increased strength and durability
3) increased length of non-weight bearing bones such as the arms
what are 2 negatives of exercise and bone development?
1) overuse injuries can be incurred by young children who over-train
2) too much strain on a bone during a period of growth can lead to osteochondrosis
the derangement of the normal process of bone growth
active children and teenagers show what 3 things?
1) an increase in lean body mass
2) a decrease in percent body fat
3) muscle hypertrophy with exercise
what can pressure by parents and coaches do?
hinder the development of an active lifestyle and cause stress
perceptual motor development
the use of movement activities to enhance academic or intellectual performance
who developed the perceptual motor development theory?
Kephart - over 30 years ago
what did kephart believe?
that learning deficiencies resulted from the inability to properly integrate present stimuli with the stored information concerning past stimuli
what does kepharts theory suggest?
suggests that participation in basic forms of movement may improve reading and writing skills
refers to a persons standing height
body length is measured in infants while the child is ____
true or false: there is little difference in average length between males and females at birth
boys = 50.5 cm
girls = 49.9 cm
by then end of the first year how long are boys? girls?
boys = 75 cm
girls = 74.1 cm
true or false: after 2 years, stature increases more slowly, until adolescence
how much do girls grow per year on average? boys?
girls = 8cm/year avg
boys = 10 cm/year avg
when is peak height achieved in boys? girls?
boys = 18
girls = 16.5
usually there is no change in stature after age ___