Chapter 16: The Last West and the New South 1865-1900 Flashcards Preview

AP US History > Chapter 16: The Last West and the New South 1865-1900 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16: The Last West and the New South 1865-1900 Deck (35):
1

Virginia City/Comstock Lode

A city in Nevada which was created by a rich strike
~Infamous for saloons, dance-hall girls, and vigilante justice
~Later developed theaters, churches, newspapers, schools, libraries, railroads, and organized law enforcement

2

Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Passed by Congress due to the political pressure from Western states
~Prohibited the further immigration to the United States by Chinese laborers
~Renewed 10 years later
~First major Act by Congress to restrict immigration on basis of race or nationality

3

cowboys

The people who raised cattle and rounded them up in Texas
~Also known as vaceros

4

Cattle drives

Transported cattle to various cities along the United States
~Stopped long cattle drives due to overgrazing
~Cowboys paid less than or about a dollar

5

Barbed wire

Type of fencing which cuts cattle and people when touched
~Closed down cattle frontier
~Homesteaders used it
~Cut off access to the formerly open range

6

Homestead Act (1862)

Encouraged farming on the Great Plains by offering 160 acres of public land free to any family that settled on it for a period of 5 years
~Many Americans attempted to farm the Great Plains due to the promise of free land (1870-1900)
~Approx. 500,000 families took advantage of the Homestead Act
~Most had to purchase their land, because the best public lands went to railroad companies and speculators

7

The Significance of the Frontier in American History (1893)

Written by Frederick Jackson Turner as a reaction to the closing of the frontier
~Argued that 300 years of frontier experience had played a fundamental role in shaping the unique character of American society
~Said that the frontier had promoted a habit of independence and individualism
~It had acted as a powerful leveler, breaking down class distinctions and thus fostering social and political democracy
~Said that it had caused Americans to be inventive and practical minded, but wasteful in accordance with natural resources

8

Reservation Policies

Made it so lands West of the Mississippi would remain ("permanently") "Indian Country" (in 1830)
~As Westward expansion grew with the transcontinental railroad, Indians were offered tracts of land with definite boundaries
~Many plains tribes refused

9

Sand Creek

Where a Colorado militia massacred an encampment of Cheyenne men, women, and children
~1864

10

Captain William Fetterman

An army column under him was wiped out by Sioux warriors
~1866 during the Sioux War

11

Little Big Horn

An attack by the Sioux during the Second Sioux War
~Led to the Sioux's defeat
~However ambushed and destroyed George Custer's command here
~1876

12

Sitting Bull

Led the Second Sioux War alongside Crazy Horse in 1876
~Defeated, but still able to destroy Custer's command

13

Chief Joseph

Attempted to lead a band of Nez Percé into Canada
~Ended in defeat and surrender in 1877

14

"A Century of Dishonor" by Helen Hunt Jackson

Chronicled the injustices done to Native Americans; was a best seller 1881
~Created sympathy for Native Americans, especially in the Eastern US
~Only suggested trying to convert Natives to white ways

15

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

Divided tribal lands into plots of 160 acres or less, depending on size
~US citizenship was granted to those who stayed on the land for 25 years and adopted the habits of "civilized life"
~Meant that 90 million acres of former reservation land (often best land) would be sold to white settlers by the government

16

Ghost Dance

The last effort of Native Americans to resist US domination and drive whites from their ancestral lands: a religious movement
~Led to the death of Sitting Bull during his arrest

17

Wounded Knee

In December of 1890, the final tragedy which ended the Indian Wars
~Over 200 Native American men, women, and children were gunned down by the American army
~"Battle" (Massacre) of Wounded Knee

18

Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

Part of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal
~Promoted the reestablishment of tribal organizations and culture

19

"The New South"

A new perspective during this era that argued for economic diversity and laissez-faire capitalism
~Local government helped spur growth by offering tax exemptions to attract investors to start new industries
~Cheap, low-wage, labor was another incentive for businesses to locate in the New South

20

George Washington Carver

An African American scientist at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama promoted the growing of such crops as peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans
~Played an important role in shifting Southern agriculture toward a more diversified base

21

Civil Rights Cases of 1883

The Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens
~Included railroads, hotels, and other businesses used by the public

22

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

The Supreme Court upheld a Louisiana law requiring "separate but equal accommodations" for white and black passengers on railroads
~The Court ruled that the Louisiana law did not violate the 14th Amendment's guarantee of "equal protection under the law"

23

Jim Crow Laws

A wave of segregation laws adopted by Southern states
~Laws that required segregated washrooms, drinking fountains, park benches, and other facilities in virtually all public places
~Only the use of streets and most stores was not restricted due to one's race

24

Poll Taxes/Literacy Tests/Grandfather Clauses

Obstacles which prevented blacks from voting
~Poll taxes and literacy tests most common obstacles from blacks in voting places
~Grandfather clauses which allowed a man to vote only if his grandfather had cast ballots in elections prior to Reconstruction

25

Bishop Henry Turner

Formed the International Migration Society in 1894
~Helped American blacks emigrate to Africa

26

Ida B. Wells

Editor of the Memphis 'Free Speech' a black newspaper
~Devoted to her efforts to campaigning against lynching and the Jim Crow laws
~Death threats and the destruction of her printing press forced Wells to carry her work North

27

Booker T. Washington

A former slave who established an industrial and agricultural school at Tuskegee, Alabama, which he built to be the best industrial school in the nation
~Taught Southern blacks skilled trades, the virtues of hard work, moderation, and economic self help
~Called money "the little green ballot"

28

National Negro Business League

Organized by Booker T. Washington which helped support African American businesses across the nation

29

W.E.B. Du Bois

Young African American leader demanded an end to segregation and the granting of equal civil rights to all Americans

30

The National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry

Organized by Oliver H. Kelley primarily as a social and educational organization for farmers and their families
~Took political action to defend members against the middlemen, trusts, and railroads

31

Munn v. Illinois (1877)

the Supreme Court upheld the right of a state to regulate businesses of a public nature, such as railroads

32

Wabash v. Illinois (1886)

the Supreme Court ruled that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce
~Nullified many of the state regulations achieved by the Grangers

33

Interstate Commerce Act (1886)

Required railroad rates to be "reasonable and just"
~Set up the first federal regulatory agency: Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
~Had the power to investigate and prosecute pools, rebates, and others discriminatory practices

34

The National Alliance

A national organization of farmers met in Florida to address the problems of rural America
~Attacked both major parties as subservient to Wall Street bankers and big business

35

The Ocala Platform

National Alliance supported:
1. Direct election of US senators
2. Lower tariff rates
3. A graduated income tax
4. A new banking system regulated by the federal government
~Demanded that Treasury notes and silver be used to increase the amount of money in circulation
~Farmers hoped this would create inflation and raise crop prices
~Proposed federal storage for farmers' crops and federal loans
~Would free farmers from dependency on middlemen and creditors