Flashcards in Chapter 17 - information processing in motor learning Deck (40):
CNS = ________
_____ = the part of the nervous system that connects with the rest of the body
another name for a nerve cell is?
_____ is the fundamental functional and structural unit of the nervous system
what does the neuron allow for?
allows information to travel throughout the body to various destinations
what part of the neuron receives the message?
the ______ (of the neuron) transmits message to terminal ending
the _____ (of the neuron) sends the message to adjacent neuron
terminal ending on muscle
what is the myelin sheath?
fatty covering or insulator of the neuron
what does skipping impulses allow for?
what are the 3 types of neurons?
1) afferent neurons
3) efferent neurons
sensory & carry signals to the brain
- originate and terminate in CNS
- connect afferents and efferents in CNS
motor & carry signals from the brain
what do neural impulses do?
transport the information necessary for all activities we carry out
what is the language of the nervous system?
the synapse and synaptic transmission differ in terms of what 2 things?
1) neurotramitter used (e.g., acetylcholine or Ach)
2) general function (e.g., inhibitory or excitatory)
what is the "all or none" law
synaptic transmission causes action potential when its strength is above a minimum threshold level. when the strength is below threshold level there i no action potential
true or false: action potential is always the same intensity regardless of the strength of synaptic transmission above the threshold level
true or false: the action potentials intensity changes along the nerve fiber
FALSE: the action potentials intensity remains constant along the nerve fibre
what are the 3 information-processing stages?
1) stimulus-identification stage
2) response-selection stage
3) response-programming stage
-sensing environmental information
- representation of stimulus and its nature
-translation from perception to response in the form of a motor program
- organizing the selected movement
- retrieve motor program
- command correct muscles
- choose appropriate force
- choose appropriate timing, etc.
what happens as we execute movements?
the receptors in our bodies continually update the CNS about the nature of our actions
what does the efficiency of motor control by the information-processing system depend on?
follows the idea that movements may be planned and adjusted by feedback even during a movement
closed-loop control process is _____ and will continue to maintain the desired movement of the performed
the are 3 key elements of the closed-loop control
2) error detection
3) error correction
analogy of closed-loop control
what are 4 advantages of the closed-loop system?
1) new skills
2) activities requiring precision and accuracy
3) allows adjustment according to the situation
4) adds versatility to movements
what are 2 disadvantages of the closed-loop system?
1) rapid, discrete actions do not properly fall under closed-loop control
2) demands attention and time
-feedback must pass through the processing stage
describes control of automatic actions
when are movements structured in open-loop system?
movements may be structured in advance, enabling them to run off automatically when initiated
what are the 2 main components of the open-loop system?
1) the executive
2) the effector
-chooses motor program
-carries out specific instructions automatically
what are 3 advantages of the open-loop system?
1) fast and forceful movements can be produced without extensive conscious control
2) attention can be diverted to other responses
3) does not demand as much time because there is no feedback
what are 2 disadvantages of the open-loop system?
1) not as effective in unstable and less predictable situations
- movements may not be determined effectively in advance
2) not effective in precise and complex actions