Chapter 17 - information processing in motor learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - information processing in motor learning Deck (40):
1

CNS = ________

control center

2

_____ = the part of the nervous system that connects with the rest of the body

PNS

3

another name for a nerve cell is?

neuron

4

_____ is the fundamental functional and structural unit of the nervous system

neuron

5

what does the neuron allow for?

allows information to travel throughout the body to various destinations

6

what part of the neuron receives the message?

dendrites

7

the ______ (of the neuron) transmits message to terminal ending

axon

8

the _____ (of the neuron) sends the message to adjacent neuron

terminal ending on muscle

9

what is the myelin sheath?

fatty covering or insulator of the neuron

10

what does skipping impulses allow for?

faster conduction

11

what are the 3 types of neurons?

1) afferent neurons
2) interneurons
3) efferent neurons

12

afferent neurons

sensory & carry signals to the brain

13

interneurons

- originate and terminate in CNS
- connect afferents and efferents in CNS

14

efferent neurons

motor & carry signals from the brain

15

what do neural impulses do?

transport the information necessary for all activities we carry out

16

what is the language of the nervous system?

neural impulses

17

the synapse and synaptic transmission differ in terms of what 2 things?

1) neurotramitter used (e.g., acetylcholine or Ach)
2) general function (e.g., inhibitory or excitatory)

18

what is the "all or none" law

synaptic transmission causes action potential when its strength is above a minimum threshold level. when the strength is below threshold level there i no action potential

19

true or false: action potential is always the same intensity regardless of the strength of synaptic transmission above the threshold level

true

20

true or false: the action potentials intensity changes along the nerve fiber

FALSE: the action potentials intensity remains constant along the nerve fibre

21

what are the 3 information-processing stages?

1) stimulus-identification stage
2) response-selection stage
3) response-programming stage

22

stimulus-identification stage

-sensing environmental information
- exteroceptors
- proprioceptors
- representation of stimulus and its nature

23

response-selection stage

-translation from perception to response in the form of a motor program

24

response-programming stage

- organizing the selected movement
- retrieve motor program
- command correct muscles
- choose appropriate force
- choose appropriate timing, etc.

25

what happens as we execute movements?

the receptors in our bodies continually update the CNS about the nature of our actions

26

what does the efficiency of motor control by the information-processing system depend on?

feedback

27

closed-loop control

follows the idea that movements may be planned and adjusted by feedback even during a movement

28

closed-loop control process is _____ and will continue to maintain the desired movement of the performed

self-regulating

29

the are 3 key elements of the closed-loop control

1) feedback
2) error detection
3) error correction

30

analogy of closed-loop control

thermostat

31

what are 4 advantages of the closed-loop system?

1) new skills
2) activities requiring precision and accuracy
3) allows adjustment according to the situation
4) adds versatility to movements

32

what are 2 disadvantages of the closed-loop system?

1) rapid, discrete actions do not properly fall under closed-loop control
2) demands attention and time
-feedback must pass through the processing stage

33

open-loop control

describes control of automatic actions

34

when are movements structured in open-loop system?

movements may be structured in advance, enabling them to run off automatically when initiated

35

what are the 2 main components of the open-loop system?

1) the executive
2) the effector

36

executive

-chooses motor program
-relays instruction

37

effector

-carries out specific instructions automatically

38

what are 3 advantages of the open-loop system?

1) fast and forceful movements can be produced without extensive conscious control
2) attention can be diverted to other responses
3) does not demand as much time because there is no feedback

39

what are 2 disadvantages of the open-loop system?

1) not as effective in unstable and less predictable situations
- movements may not be determined effectively in advance
2) not effective in precise and complex actions

40

what are the 6 factors affecting information processing?

1) arousal and psychological readiness
2) capacity to concentrate
3) ability to anticipate
4) reaction time
5) sensory receptors relay
6) sensory input quality