Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Physical Activity and Sport Issues Deck (77)
does more aggression occur after losing a contest or winning? why?
losing, because of frustration
why do lower league standing teams demonstrate more aggression?
because of frustration and little to lose
what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from the outcome of the contest and league standing?
refocus the teams efforts into more productive channels, e.g., a new game plan
why does a larger point spread cause more aggression to occur?
nothing to lose because game is perceived to be out of reach
what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from point spread?
refocus attention e.g., try out a new play
do sports with a lot of physical contact result in more aggression? why?
yes because if a player believes that the opponent is trying to hurt him/her there is an increased likelihood that aggression will occur
what are 2 recommendations to prevent aggressive behaviour from physical contact?
1) encouraging athletes to increase effort vs. aggressive acts
2) victory (vs. harm) = the ultimate way to get back at an opponent
does more aggression occur when a team plays at home or away from home? why?
more aggression occurs when a team plays away from home because it is linked to fan reaction. i.e., unfriendly crowd is likely to anger the visiting team
what is a recommendation to prevent aggressive behaviour from fan reaction?
players must learn to "tune out" this fan reaction and focus on the game
behaviour aimed at getting around the rules or simply breaking them
why do athletes cheat?
1) the win-at-all costs mentality
2) cheating results from not abiding by the sport ethic
cluster of norms that describe what it means to be a successful athlete
what are the 4 specific norms that make up the sport ethic?
1) an athlete make sacrifices for the game
2) an athlete strives for distinction
3) an athlete accepts risks and plays through pain
4) an athlete accepts no limit in the pursuit of possibilities
what 2 things does an athletes love and dedication to the game involve?
1) meeting the competition demands without question
2) making sacrifices (e.g., family)
what are 2 ways athletes strive for distinction?
1) constantly seeking improvement
2) continuously getting closer to perfection
- "swifter, higher, stronger"
athletes do not give in to ______, ______, or ______
pressure, pain or fear
success comes with what 2 things?
1) overcoming the fear and challenge of competition
2) accepting the increased risk of failure and injury
when does cheating occur?
when the norms of the sport ethic are not accepted
what are the most popular forms of deviance?
1) athlete recruitment
2) academic cheating
3) cheating in games
4) performance-enhancing drugs
true or false: there is little evidence that athletes engage in more academic cheating than other students
what are 2 reasons athlete use performance enhancing drugs?
1) to gain a winning edge
2) just to stay competitive
why are performance enhancing drugs illegal?
1) they give one an unfair advantage
2) they have serious health side-effects
what prevented women from participating in physical activity in the past?
1) lack of rights
2) emphasis on reproduction
3) societal expectations
what did physical exertion have to do with womens emphasis on reproduction?
it was thought to detroy a womens potential to have children
what was the single most important change in the world of sport over the past generation?
INCREASED PARTICIPATION of FEMALES
what led to the increased participation of females in sport?
1) new opportunities
2) political pressure and equal rights legislation
3) the global womens rights movement
4) the expanding health and fitness movement
5) increased media coverage of women in sport
what are 2 reasons for the new opportnities for women in sport?
1) development of new teams and programs since the late 1970s is linked with increased participation
2) resulted from politcial changes
in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1984 study?
that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were males
in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1987 study?
that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were still male