Chapter 19 - Physical Activity and Sport Issues Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Physical Activity and Sport Issues Deck (77):
1

what is an example of modern sport being a reflection of our society?

winning at all costs

2

sociology

the study of the functioning of human society in various environments (e.g., workplace, church, school)

3

sport sociology

the study of the functioning of society within the modern sport environment

4

what are 7 important issues in sport?

1) Agression and Violence in sport
2) cheating in sport
3) gender and sport
4) race and ethnicity in sport
5) racism in sport
6) other victims discrimination
7) future sporting trends

5

what does violence in sport parallel?

the reality of violence in society as a whole

6

true or false: we see examples of societal violence watching the evening news but never watching sports news

FALSE: we see examples of societal violence watching the evening news, but sports news isnt much better

7

what is an example of violence in soccer?

2006: zinedin zidane head butts marco materazzi in world cup final

8

what is an example of violence in hockey?

2000: mart mcsorley knocs out donal brashear by slashing him in the head with his stick

9

what is an example of violence in basketball?

1995: vermon maxwell hits an abusive fan in the sands

10

what is an example of violence in baseball?

roger clemens throws the jagged piece of a broken bat at mike piazza

11

violence

extreme agression

12

what are the 3 distinct components of aggressive behavior?

1) hostile aggression
2) instrumental aggression
3) assertive behaviour

13

what is the intent of all the hostile aggression and instrumental aggression components of aggressive behaviour?

to cause harm

14

what is the goal of hostile aggression?

to cause suffering

15

what is the goal of instrumental aggression?

to achieve some external reward

16

true or false: anger is usually involve in hostile agression

true

17

true or false: anger is usually involved in instrumental aggression

FALSE: no anger is involved in instrumental aggression

18

is hostile aggression performed inside or outside the rules of the game?

outside the rules of the game

19

is instrumental aggression performed inside or outside the rules of the game?

inside

20

give an example of hostile aggression

fist fighting in hockey

21

give an example of instrumental aggression

aggressive checking meant to hurt the opponent

22

assertive behaviour is often confused with _______

aggression

23

in assertive behaviour there is an increased _____ and ____ expenditure

effort and energy

24

is there an intent to harm in assertive behaviour?

no

25

is there anger involved in assertive behaviour?

no anger involved

26

can assertive behaviour result in harm?

may result in harm, but any resultant harm is incidental to the game

27

give an example of assertive behaviour

assertive checking meant to show down the opponent

28

what are 5 causes of aggressive behaviour in sport?

1) parents and coaches
2) outcome of the contest and league standing
3) point spread
4) physical contact
5) fan reaction

29

what are 2 ways that parents can cause aggressive behaviour in sport?

1) through comments like "bob can really take care of himself"
2) by demonstrating interest in televised sporting event fights

30

what is a recommendation for parents to not cause aggressive behaviour in sport?

good role models need to convey a negative reaction to aggression

31

does more aggression occur after losing a contest or winning? why?

losing, because of frustration

32

why do lower league standing teams demonstrate more aggression?

because of frustration and little to lose

33

what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from the outcome of the contest and league standing?

refocus the teams efforts into more productive channels, e.g., a new game plan

34

why does a larger point spread cause more aggression to occur?

nothing to lose because game is perceived to be out of reach

35

what is a recommendation to reduce aggressive behaviour from point spread?

refocus attention e.g., try out a new play

36

do sports with a lot of physical contact result in more aggression? why?

yes because if a player believes that the opponent is trying to hurt him/her there is an increased likelihood that aggression will occur

37

what are 2 recommendations to prevent aggressive behaviour from physical contact?

1) encouraging athletes to increase effort vs. aggressive acts
2) victory (vs. harm) = the ultimate way to get back at an opponent

38

does more aggression occur when a team plays at home or away from home? why?

more aggression occurs when a team plays away from home because it is linked to fan reaction. i.e., unfriendly crowd is likely to anger the visiting team

39

what is a recommendation to prevent aggressive behaviour from fan reaction?

players must learn to "tune out" this fan reaction and focus on the game

40

cheating

behaviour aimed at getting around the rules or simply breaking them

41

why do athletes cheat?

1) the win-at-all costs mentality
2) cheating results from not abiding by the sport ethic

42

sport ethic

cluster of norms that describe what it means to be a successful athlete

43

what are the 4 specific norms that make up the sport ethic?

1) an athlete make sacrifices for the game
2) an athlete strives for distinction
3) an athlete accepts risks and plays through pain
4) an athlete accepts no limit in the pursuit of possibilities

44

what 2 things does an athletes love and dedication to the game involve?

1) meeting the competition demands without question
2) making sacrifices (e.g., family)

45

what are 2 ways athletes strive for distinction?

1) constantly seeking improvement
2) continuously getting closer to perfection
- "swifter, higher, stronger"

46

athletes do not give in to ______, ______, or ______

pressure, pain or fear

47

success comes with what 2 things?

1) overcoming the fear and challenge of competition
2) accepting the increased risk of failure and injury

48

when does cheating occur?

when the norms of the sport ethic are not accepted

49

what are the most popular forms of deviance?

1) athlete recruitment
2) academic cheating
3) cheating in games
4) performance-enhancing drugs

50

true or false: there is little evidence that athletes engage in more academic cheating than other students

true

51

what are 2 reasons athlete use performance enhancing drugs?

1) to gain a winning edge
2) just to stay competitive

52

why are performance enhancing drugs illegal?

1) they give one an unfair advantage
2) they have serious health side-effects

53

what prevented women from participating in physical activity in the past?

1) lack of rights
2) emphasis on reproduction
3) societal expectations

54

what did physical exertion have to do with womens emphasis on reproduction?

it was thought to detroy a womens potential to have children

55

what was the single most important change in the world of sport over the past generation?

INCREASED PARTICIPATION of FEMALES

56

what led to the increased participation of females in sport?

1) new opportunities
2) political pressure and equal rights legislation
3) the global womens rights movement
4) the expanding health and fitness movement
5) increased media coverage of women in sport

57

what are 2 reasons for the new opportnities for women in sport?

1) development of new teams and programs since the late 1970s is linked with increased participation
2) resulted from politcial changes

58

in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1984 study?

that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were males

59

in early 1980s in canada, pressure womens groups led to the investigation of sport opportunities: what were the finding from the 1987 study?

that 64% of inter-collegiate athletes were still male

60

true or false: womens sports are not usually promoted as mass sports today

true

61

true or false: female athletes enjoy greater financial rewards than male athletes today

FALSE: male athletes still enjoy greater financial rewards than female athletes

62

what happened at the 1996, UNs 4th world conference on women?

-increased efforts to provide sports opportunities
-new efforts to promote education, health and human right for females all over the world

63

true or false: womens sports are still not covered as often or with the same detail as mens sports

true

64

race

involves reference to physical traits BUT is based on meanings that people have given to those particular physical traits

65

ethnicity

-not based on physical traits
-based on characteristics associated with cultural traditions and background

66

minority group

a socially identified group that experiences discrimination and suffers social disadvantages

67

the black athlete - view of the past

-only white athletes were allowed to play on major league baseball teams
-black athletes played in negro leagues

68

who was the first black baseball player to play in the major leagues (1947)?

jackie robinson

69

what were the 2 major concerns of native peoples with respect to sports?

1) equity concerns (bottom of social ladder, lack financial resources, sports facilities, coaching and sporting event opportunities)
2) cultural concerns
(maintenance of culture values in sports e.g., snow snake or lacross e.g, inclusion and sharing (vs competition))

70

what are 3 derogatory words for disabled

crippled, handicapped, retarded

71

who was the first north american athlete to "come out"? (1976)

dave kopay

72

gay games

-formed in 1982
-people of all sexual orientations are welcomed

73

what is the key philosophy of gay games?

participation, support, inclusiveness, enjoyment

74

why were older adults discouraged from participating in sport?

1) developmental theory
2) old medical practice

75

is there a greater emphasis on illness prevention or treatment?

illness prevention

76

is there a bigger emphasis on involvement in participation sports or performance sports?

participation

77

is there a bigger emphasis on performance sports or on physical activities that involve lifetime skills

physical activities that involve lifetime skills