Chapter 2: The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire 1607-1750 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: The Thirteen Colonies and the British Empire 1607-1750 Deck (23):
1

Chesapeake Colonies

Consisting of Maryland and Virginia gifted to noblemen by King Charles I
~Maryland: Established as a Catholic religious center. Act of Toleration-granted religious freedom to all Christians. The statute called for death of those who denied the divinity of Jesus
~Virginia: Brought many indentured servants to help with labor shortages. Tobacco industry became prominent.

2

Lord Baltimore/George Calvert

The prominent founder of Maryland
~Catholic nobleman rewarded large chunk of land as he supported King Charles I
~Wanted to build multiple joint stock companies but died before he achieved that

3

Act of Toleration (1649)

Implemented in Maryland by the Catholics
~The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians
~Called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus

4

Sir William Berkeley

The royal governor of Virginia favored large planters and used dictorial powers
~Antagonized backwoods farmers on Virginia's western frontier because he failed to protect their settlements from Indian attacks

5

Bacon's Rebellion

Due to resentment of economic and political control of some planters in the Chesapeake area
~A series of raids and massacres against Indian villages on the Virginia frontier
~Meant to rebel against royal authority---> burned down Jamestown
~Bacon died of dysentery

6

Indentured Servants

"slaves" brought to the Americas in order to help stop labor shortages
~To repay the person who paid for their passage people from the British Isles agreed to work for a specified period of time
~Typically 4-7 years
~After the period elapsed they gained their freedom

7

Headright System

Another method for attracting immigrants to the Americas offered land (Virginia) (50 acres) to
1. Each immigrant who paid for their own passage
2. Any plantation owner who paid for an immigrant's passage

8

Roger Williams

Went to Boston in 1631 as a respected Puritan minister
~His teachings placed him in conflict with other Puritan ministers and was banished from the Bay Colony
~He and his followers created Providence in 1636

9

Anne Hutchinson

Another Protestant who questioned the Puritan doctrines
~Believed in antinominism; the idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation
~Banished from the Bay Colony
~Her followers created Portsmouth in 1638 not far from Providence

10

Thomas Hooker

Reverend; founded the colony of Hartford in 1636
~Led group of unhappy Boston Puritans into the Connecticut River Valley
~Attracted other unhappy settlers in Massachusetts to Connecticut River Valley

11

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)

The first written constitution in American history
~Established a representative government consisting of a legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by that legislature

12

Halfway Covenant

An effort to maintain the Churches influence and membership
~People could now take part in church services and activities without making a formal declaration to their belief in Christ
~Offered by some clergymen to those who professed limited religious commitment
~Other ministers rejected the halfway covenant and denounced it from the pulpit

13

New England Confederation

In retaliation to the treat of Indian attacks
~In 1643 four New England Colonies, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven formed a military alliance
~Acted on boundary disputes, the return of runaway slaves, and dealings with Indians

14

King Philip's War

The chief of the Wampanoag's named Metacom (King Philip to colonists) united many tribes against the English settlers
~Colonial forces managed to prevail, killing King Philip and ending Indian resistance in New England

15

Restoration Colonies

Colonies founded during the restoration of power of an English monarch
~The Carolinas (South and North Carolina), New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Georgia
~Given as rewards for supporting Charles I in the Revolution

16

Quakers

Members of the Religious Society of Friends
~Believed in the equality of all men and women, nonviolence, and resistance to military service
~They further believed that religious authority was found within each person's private soul and not in the Bible or any outside source
~Such views seemed to pose a radical challenge to established authority, they were therefore widely persecuted and jailed for their beliefs

17

William Penn

The person who received a large grant of land after his father's death
~A young convert to the Quaker belief
~His father was a victorious admiral in the service of the king
~He was therefore granted a lot of land upon his father's death

18

James Oglethorpe

Led a group of philanthropists into Georgia and settled the first city, Savannah and acted as the colony's first governor
~He enacted strict regulations including an absolute ban on drinking rum, and the prohibition on slavery
~Partly because of the constant threat of Spanish attack the colony didn't prosper
~By 1752 Oglethorpe gave up Georgia became a Royal colony and his regulations dropped; Georgia soon adapted to the South Carolinan way of plantation life

19

Mercantilism

Looked upon trade, colonies and the accumulation of wealth as a basis for a country's military and political strength
~A government should regulate trade and production to enable it to become self sufficient
~Colonies were to provide raw materials to the parent country for the growth and profit of that country's industry
~Colonies existed for one purpose: to enrich the parent country

20

Navigation Acts

England's government implemented a mercantilist policy with three acts
1. Trade to and from the colonies could be carried only by English or colonial built ships which could only be operated by a English or colonial crew
2. All goods imported into the colonies, except for perishables, could pass only through ports in England
3. Specified or "enumerated" goods from the colonies could be exported to England only

21

Dominion of New England

A plot by King James II to increase royal control by combining colonies and doing away with their representative assemblies
~1686 combined New York, New Jersey and other New England colonies into the Dominion of New England
~The new governor made himself unpopular by levying taxes, limiting town meetings, and revoking land titles

22

Triangular Trade

The entrance of the New World into the slave trade business after the Royal African Company's monopoly ended
~Merchant ships would follow 3 part trade route:
New England rum to Africa for slaves, Africa for slaves to West Indies for sugar, West Indies for sugar to New England to make more rum

23

Middle Passage

Part of the Triangular Trade that was very dangerous
~Crossing of the Atlantic from West Africa to the West Indies
~Horrendous for the Africans forced to experience it