Chapter 22-World War I: "The War to End All Wars" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22-World War I: "The War to End All Wars" Deck (69):
1

Who was the New Zealander who was called "the Father of Nuclear Science," who also advanced the science of physics in 1911 with his nuclear theory of the atom?

Ernest Rutherford

2

Who was the Danish physicist who revised Rutherford's work and produced the planetary model of the atom, which showed the subatomic particles revolving around a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons?

Niels Bohr

3

Who was the German of Jewish descent who revolutionized the scientific works with his theories of relativity, which uncovered new principles of order and reality, dramatically increasing our understanding of the universe?

Albert Einstein

4

Who was the American, best-remembered agricultural scientist who thoroughly revolutionized agriculture in the Southern United States, and his many achievements include his discoveries of hundreds of profitable uses for the peanut, the soybean, and the sweet potato?

George Washington Carver

5

Who was the Cuban physician who conquered yellow fever, who theorized that a particular kind of mosquito transmitted yellow fever germs from one victim to another?

Dr. Carlos Finlay

6

What two American army doctors proved Finlay's theory and took steps to eliminate the yellow fever disease, and by 1914, it had been exterminated in tropical regions?

Walter Reed and William Gorgas

7

Who was the American entrepreneur who organized the Ford Motor Company in 1903, developed the assembly-line, and was able to produce a low-cost, dependable automobile for the average American?

Henry Ford

8

What inexpensive model did Henry Ford engineer by developing the assembly-line?

Model T

9

What process did Henry Ford develop that increased the speed and cut the cost of the car production?

Assembly-line

10

Who was one of the early pioneers in aviation of Germany, who designed and built a rigid, lighter-than-air "airship" in 1900?

Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin

11

In 1900, Zeppelin designed and built a rigid, lighter-than-air "airship" called a _____________.

Dirigible

12

The greatest step in the progress of aviation came on December 17, 1903, when the two brother Americans ___________________ made the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Orville and Wilbur Wright

13

What was a direct result of the wireless telephone?

Radio

14

What was the first commercial broadcasting station that went on the air in Pittsburgh in 1920?

KDKA

15

On April 15, __________, the British luxury liner Titanic sank in the icy Atlantic Ocean.

1912

16

What ship sank on April 15, 1912, in the icy Atlantic Ocean, carrying 1,522 men, women, and children to watery graves?

Titanic

17

Who was the German scientist who expanded the field of physics with the quantum theory of matter and energy in 1900?

Max Planck

18

Who was the leader of the newly united and aggressive Germany, and under his leadership, Germany was eager to expand, and demonstrate its strength to the older established Europe?

Kaiser Wilhelm II

19

What was the hostile camp that consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy?

Triple Alliance

20

What was the hostile camp that consisted of France, Great Britain, and Russia?

Triple Entente

21

Who was the heir to the Austrian throne who ,along with his wife, was assassinated by a Serbian revolutionary on June 28, 1914?

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

22

In what town in Bosnia was Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated, which was then an Austrian province in the Balkans?

Sarajevo

23

On what day did Austria declare war on Serbia, beginning World War I?

July 28, 1914

24

On July 28, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia, beginning ________________, known in its day as the Great War.

World War I

25

World War I was known in its day as:

Great War

26

In the conflict of World War I, the Triple Entente (England, France, and Russia) and its supporters became known as the:

Allies

27

In the conflict of World War I, the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and its allies became known as the:

Central Powers

28

French forces stopped the German advance in a stunning counteroffensive that drove the exhausted Germans back across the Marne River, saving Paris and the French army from capture, in what is remembered as:

"Miracle on the Marne"

29

At what town in Belgium did the small but gallant British Expeditionary Force lose 50,000 men in its courageous defense against the German onslaught?

Ypres

30

What are the deep ditches used in battle for cover against enemy gunfire?

Trenches

31

By Christmas 1914, the ______________ stretched for 600 miles from English Channel to the Swiss Alps.

Western Front

32

In 1916, the Germans attempted to crack the French defenses with a furious assault upon the fortress-city of:

Verdun

33

Who was the commander of Verdun's defenders who put up a determined defense against the Germans, and said "They shall not pass!"?

Henri Pétain

34

In an attempt to relieve the pressure at Verdun, British forces launched a massive offensive against the Germans at the:

Somme River

35

What was the nickname for the British soldiers?

"tommies"

36

Kaiser Wilhelm II dismissed the chief of the German General Staff and replaced him with what two generals who became supreme commanders of all Central Powers forces?

Paul von Hindenburg and Erich von Ludendorff

37

Growing discontent over the war in Russia led to the __________________ in March 1917, when mutinous soldiers forced the czar to abdicate, and a Provisional Government was established.

Russian Revolution

38

In November 1917, Communist revolutionaries, led by __________________, overthrew the Provisional Government in the Bolshevik Revolution and established a Communist dictatorship in Russia.

Vladimir Lenin

39

In November 1917, Communist revolutionists, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government in the ___________________ and established a Communist dictatorship in Russia.

Bolshevik Revolution

40

Because he wanted to concentrate on consolidating his Communist state, Lenin took Russia out of the war by signing the ___________________ with the Central Powers and surrendering much land and resources to Germany.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

41

Who was the British colonel who was also called "Lawrence of Arabia," and led Arab revolts against Turkish rule in the Arabian Peninsula?

T. E. Lawrence

42

British and Australian troops under General _______________ captured Jerusalem in December 1917.

Edmund Allenby

43

What was the largest British offensive in the East which was planned by Winston Churchill?

Gallipoli Campaign

44

Who was England's First Lord of the Admiralty who planned the Gallipoli Campaign, which proposed to strike through Turkey's "back door," and failed?

Winston Churchill

45

To get around the British blockade, Germany resorted to what new weapon of war?

Submarine, or U-boat

46

One of the first victims of submarine warfare was what British luxury liner?

Lusitania

47

What was the most important naval battle of World War I, and took place in May 1916, when a German fleet clashed with the British Royal Navy at the _________________, in the North Sea west of Denmark.

Battle of Jutland

48

Pilots who shot down at least five enemy aircraft were called:

"aces"

49

Who was one of the most famous German aces, also known as the "Red Baron," who shot down 80 Allied planes?

Manfred von Richthofen

50

Who was one of the most famous American aces, who destroyed 26 enemy aircraft?

Eddie Rickenbacker

51

What note proposed that Mexico and Germany form an alliance if the United States entered the war?

Zimmerman note

52

Who was the president of the United States during World War I who declared war on Germany in 1917?

Woodrow Wilson

53

In what year during World War I did the United States declare war on Germany?

1917

54

The German used one of their famous long-range guns, called ______________ to bombard Paris from 75 miles away.

"Big Bertha"

55

Under the command of General ____________________, the American Expeditionary Force arrived in France at the rate of 300,000 men a month, and reached the front in time to halt the German advance.

John J. ("Blackjack") Pershing

56

What was the nickname fur American soldiers during World War I?

"Doughboys"

57

With American resources, the Allied armies under the supreme command of French Field Marshal ________________ began driving the Germans back.

Ferdinand Foch

58

In place of Kaiser Wilhelm II, a representative government called the ______________ was established.

Weimar Republic

59

What was the exact date of the signing of the armistice to go in effect?

November 11, 1918

60

What was the name of the day the celebrated the end if World War I, and is now called Veterans Day?

Armistice Day

61

What are the two things that are difficult enough to reconcile in themselves?

Free will (of human beings),
Reign of law (in history)

62

What is a further factor that is operative in life and in the story of the centuries, in whom we live and move and have our being?

Providence of God

63

What is one way we can look at historical events, in which we can see human beings taking their actions and decisions and operating with a certain amount of freedom so that they can be her responsible for the decisions they make?

Biographical

64

What is one way of looking at historical events, and is the scientific examination of the deep forces and tendencies in history?

Historical

65

What is the third way of looking at history, which state that in Him we live and move and have our being?

Providence

66

In a speech to Congress in January 1918, President Wilson listed ________________ as the "only possible program for world peace."

Fourteen Points

67

The leadership of the peace conference in 1919 fell to four influential men, called the ________________, and included President Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of England, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy.

"Big Four"

68

Convinced that the most critical step in maintaining future world peace was the establishment of a _________________, President Wilson insisted that his proposed league be made a part of the treaty itself.

"League of Nations"

69

The chief result of the peace conference was the ________________, which was a series of compromises, with some of Wilson's Fourteen Points, including the covenant of the League of Nations, influencing the terms of the treaty.

Treaty of Versailles