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Flashcards in chapter 24 part 2 Deck (62)
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31

inactive proenzymes are activated when

after reaching the small intestine

32

Proenzyme: trypsinogen
-active enzyme
-enzyme responsible for conversion
-function of active enzyme

-trypsin
-enteropeptidase
-converts proenzyme into active

33

enteropeptidase

produced by intestinal glands of duodenum

34

Proenzyme: Chymotrysinogen
-active enzyme
-enzyme responsible for conversion
-function of active enzyme

-chymotrypsin
-trypsin
-breakdown protein and polypeptides

35

Proenzyme: procarboxypeptide
-active enzyme
-enzyme responsible for conversion
-function of active enzyme

-carboxypeptidase
-trypsin
-breaks down proteins and poly peptides

36

Proenzyme: proelastase
-active enzyme
-enzyme responsible for conversion
-function of active enzyme

-elastase
-trypsin
-breaks down elastin

37

regulation of pancreatic secretion
-stimulus
-3 hormones released

-hormones released from duodenum when chyme enters
-secretin, cholecystokinin and gastric inhibitory peptide

38

secretin
-2 functions

1. stimulates secretion of watery buffer portion of pancreatic juice
2. help to neutralize the pH of chyme

39

cholecystokinin
2 functions

1. stimulates production of pancreatic enzymes
2. causes relaxation of the hepatopancreatic sphincter

40

gastric inhibitory peptide
-when is it released
-function

-when chyme containing large quantities of glucose arrives
-stimulates release of insulin by pancreas

41

the small intestine
-contains

brush border enzymes

42

brush border enzymes
-definition
-2 types

-enzymes made by columnar epithelial cells of the villi
-1. protein digesting enzymes
2. carbohydrate digesting enzymes

43

protein digesting enzymes
-2 types

1. enteropeptidase
2. dipeptidase/peptidase

44

enteropeptidase

targets proenzyme trypsinogen and coverts it to trypsin

45

dipeptidase/peptidase

targets di and tripeptides and breaks them into single AA

46

carbohydrate digesting enzymes
-breaks down 3 carbs

1. sucrase
2. maltase
3. lactase

47

sucrase broken down into
-maltase
-lactase

-glucose and fructose
-glucose and glucose
-glucose and galactose

48

Absorption
-where?
-3 modifications

-stomach, small and large intestine
-1. Plica circulares
2. villi
3. microvilli

49

absorption in
-stomach
-small intestine
-large intestine

drugs like alc and asprin
-nutrients from food and water
-water and ions

50

plica circulares
-definition
-function

-series of folds found in the small intestine; permanent features
-increases surface area for absorption

51

villi
-definition
-function

-fingerlike projections
-increases surface for absorption

52

microvilli
-definition
-function

-on columnar epithelial cells found covering the villi
-increases surface for absorption

53

movement of water depends on

osmotic gradients

54

absorption of water
-ingest
-saliva adds how many ml
-gastric secretions
-liver
-pancreas
-intestinal secretions
-sm intestine reabsorbs
-colonic mucous secretions
-some H2O reabsorption
-___ ml of H2O in feces

- ~2000 ml
- ~1500 ml
- ~1500 ml
- 1000 ml of bile
- 1000 ml of pancreatic juice
- 2000 ml
- (92%)
- ~200 ml
- (~6-7%)
- 150 ml

55

Absorption: blood
-what does the lamina propria of the villi contain
-capillaries carry absorbed nutrients to the

-capillary bed
-hepatic portal circulation

56

hepatic portal circulation
-nutrients are delivered to the ___ for ___

liver for storage, metabolic conversion or excretion

57

Lymphatics:lacteals
-definition
-function
-ex
-returned to venous system through

-lymphatic vessel present in lamina propria of villi
-transport materials that cannot enter blood vessels; usually things that are too large to enter capillaries
-lipoproteins (lipid and protein combos)
-thoracic duct

58

where does the absorption of carbs, proteins and lipids take place

in the mucosa of the sm intestine

59

absorption: carbs
-lumen
-epithelial cell of the villus
-blood stream

-monosacchrides (glucose, fructose and galactose)
-enter through facilitated diffusion and co-transport
-enters capillaries by facilitated diffusion

60

co-transport

requires a carrier protein and an ion to move in the same direction (usually Na+)