Chapter 4 Part Two Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Part Two Deck (25):
1

Critical Period

The time shortly after birth during which an organism must be exposed to certain experiences or influences if it is to develop properly

2

Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during a limited critical period early in life

3

Basic Trust

A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy - infants think this is caregiving needs are met

4

Self-Concept

A person's sense of identity and personal worth

5

Authoritarian Parents

Parents dictate rules and expect obedience

6

Permissive Parents

Make a few demands and tend to submit to the wishes of their children

7

Authoritative Parents

Parents set and enforce rules after discussion with children

8

Adolescence

Life stage from puberty to independent adulthood

9

Puberty

The earliest period of adolescence - now capable of reproduction

10

Primary Sex Traits

Bodily structures for reproduction

11

Secondary Sex Traits

Not reproductive sexual characteristics , breasts, body hair, deep voices

12

Lawrence Kohlberg

He described the development of moral reasoning

13

Preconventional Morality

During this stage of character development, children obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
Before age nine

14

Menarche

The first menstrual period

15

Spermarche

The first ejaculation

16

Erik Erikson

He created an eight stage theory that helped explain development from birth to death (psychological development)

17

Identity

One's sense of self

18

Intimacy

Ability to establish close, loving relationships

19

Menopause

When menstruation stops in the late forties or fifties. Signals end of reproductive years

20

Alzheimer's Disease

A progressive and irreversible brain disorder caused by deterioration of neurons that produce Ach. Loss of memory, reasoning, physical functioning

21

Cross-sectional Study

People of different ages compared to each other

22

Longitudinal Study

The same people are tested and retested over a period of years

23

Crystallized Intelligence

Refers to aspects of intellectual ability, such as vocabulary and general knowledge, that reflect accumulated learning. Increases with age

24

Fluid Intelligence

Refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly. Declines with age

25

Social Clock

Refers to culturally preferred timing of social events, like leaving home, marrying, having kids, and retiring