Chapter 2 Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Part One Deck (36):
1

Biological Psychology

Study links between biology and behavior

2

Neuron

Nerve cell
Basic building block

3

Dendrite

Cell body of receiving neuron
Dendrites listen

4

Axon

Extension of a neuron
Sends impulses to other neurons
Axons speak

5

Myelin Sheath

Layer of fatty tissue around axon
Speeds up impulses
When myelin sheath degenerates it causes multiple sclerosis

6

Action Potential

Neural impulse generated by movement of positively charged atoms in and out of axons membrane

7

Threshold

Level of stimulation must be exceeded for reaction to fire

8

Synapse

Junction between sending and receiving ends on a neuron

9

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals released into synaptic gap that send messages

10

Acetylcholine (Ach)

Neurotransmitter that enables learning, memory, and muscle contractions
If something goes wrong it leads to Alzheimer's

11

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter that influences emotion, movement, learning, attention
Lots=schizophrenia
Little=Parkinson's

12

Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
Can lead to depression if one has too little

13

Endorphins

Neural opiate like transmitter that is linked to pain control

14

Nervous System

Speedy electrical communication system with PNS and CNS

15

Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord system

16

Peripheral Nervous System

Sensory and motor skills system
Connects CNS to outside nerves

17

Nerves

Bundles of neural axons
Part of PNS that connects to CNS

18

Sensory Neurons

Carry info from sensory receptors to CNS for processing

19

Motor Neurons

Carry info and instructions for action from CNS to muscles and glands

20

Interneurons

Neurons of the CNS that link the sensory and motor neurons in transmission of sensory inputs and motor outputs

21

Somatic Nervous System

Division of PNS that enables voluntary control over skeletal muscles

22

Autonomic Nervous System

Controls involuntary muscles of organs for survival

23

Sympathetic Nervous System

Mobilizing energy in stressful situations

24

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Calms body to conserve energy

25

Reflex

Inborn response to stimulus
Simple neural pathway

26

Lesion

Destruction of tissue
In the brain usually

27

Neural Network

Interconnected neural cells
Strengthened as learning continues

28

Endocrine System

Body's slower chemical system
Hormones

29

Hormones

Chemical messengers in bloodstream with targets
Some can mimic neurotransmitters and usually last longer

30

Adrenal Glands

Produces Epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine(noradrenaline) hormones that prepare the body for fight or flight

31

Pituitary Glands

Under the influence of the hypothalamus
Regulates growth and controls other glands
Master gland

32

EEG

Amplified recording of electrical activity and waves in brain

33

PET Scan

Measures levels of brain activity by tracing glucose

34

MRI

Generates clear images of the brain

35

fMRI

Scans that reveal blood flow and function/anatomy

36

Phrenology

Study of shape and size of cranium
Determines personality (not true)