Chapter 4 Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Part One Deck (28):
1

Developmental Psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifetime

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Zygote

Greek for joint
A fertilized egg

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Embryo

Developing prenatal organism between 2 weeks to 2 months after conception

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Fetus

The developing prenatal human from 9 weeks to birth

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Teratogens

Chemicals or viruses that cross the mothers placenta to the developing baby that can harm it

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Abnormalities that heavy drinking by the pregnant woman may cause in the developing child

7

Rooting Reflex

Newborns tendency when stroked to orient toward touch in search of nipple

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Habituation

Used to study infant cognition
Is the decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented

9

Maturation

Refers to the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior and are relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors

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Jean Piaget

Developmental psychologist who is best known for studying the cognitive development in children using careful observation
4 stage theory

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Schemas

Mental concepts and frameworks formed that organize and interpret information

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Assimilation

Refers to interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing schema

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Accommodation

Refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated

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Cognition

Refers to all mental processes associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Sensorimotor Stage

This stage lasts from birth to age 2
Infants gain knowledge of the world through their senses and motor activities

16

Object Permanence

Develops during the sensorimotor stage, is the awareness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived

17

Preoperational Stage

This stage lasts from 2-7 years old
Language development is rapid, but child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

Properties like number, volume, and mass remain constant despite changes of object forms
Acquired during concrete operational stage

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Egocentrism

Difficulty that Preoperational children have in considering another's viewpoint
Self centered

20

Theory of Mind

Our ideas about our own thoughts and others thoughts, feelings, and perceptions, and the behaviors these might predict constitute this

21

Autism

A disorder in childhood marked by deficiencies in communications, social interaction, and theory of mind

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Concrete Operational Stage

Lasting from 6-11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects

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Formal Operational Stage

Begins at age 12
People begin to think logically about abstract thoughts

24

Stranger Anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants begin to display at 8 months of age

25

Mary Ainsworth

Known for her work in early emotional attachment with the Strange Situation design, as well as her work in the development of attachment theory

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Secure Attachment

Children with this know that adults are reliable and will trust people
Get over it when mother leaves, seek contact when she comes back, comforted

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Insecure Attachment

Children with this have learned that adults are not reliable, and do not trust easily
Children cry more often when mother returns they hardly react