Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology :) > Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (27):
1

Cognition

Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

2

Concepts

Mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

3

Prototypes

Mental image or best example of a category

4

Algorithm

Step by step procedure that guarantees a solution

5

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; faster, but more error prone

6

Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
All of a sudden the answer comes to you
Provides sense of satisfaction

7

Confirmation Bias

Tendency to search fork formation that confirms one's preconceptions

8

Fixation

The inability to see a problem from perspective
An impediment to problem solving

9

Mental Set

Tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

10

Functional Fixedness

The inability to solve a problem, because it is viewed only in terms of usual function(activity)

11

Representative Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well the seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
May lead one to ignore other relevant information

12

Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instances come readily to mind(maybe due to vividness), we presume such events as common

13

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct
To overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements

14

Framing

The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

15

Belief Bias

The tendency for one's pre existing beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or vice versa

16

Language

Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

17

Phoneme

In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

18

Morpheme

In a language, the smallest unjt that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word

19

Grammar

In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

20

Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language - study of meaning

21

Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

22

Babbling Stage

Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds unrelated to household language

23

One-Word Stage

The stage in speech development, from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words

24

Two-Word Stage

Beginning about age 2, the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly two worded statements

25

Telegraphic Speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegraph - using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

26

Noam Chomsky

He had a theory that humans are biologically predisposed to acquire language

27

Linguistic Determination

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think