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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (32):
1

Overconfidence

Tendency to believe we know more than we actually do
Incidence in incorrect judgements
Not conscious of it

2

Critical Thinking

Active and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, and evaluating information

3

Scientific Method

Systematic process that is used to test a hypothesis and problem solving

4

Theory

Explanation of using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
General explanations that predict observations and events

5

Hypothesis

Testable prediction, often implied by a theory

6

Operational Definitions

Statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
It allows us to measure variables
Easy for others to replicate

7

Replicate

Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

8

Case Study

Observation technique in which one person or animalis studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Able to study rare conditions
Generalizability is difficult

9

Survey

Technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
Bad because of the wording effects
General view of someone or something -- hard to write unbiased questions

10

False Consensus Effect

Tendency to overestimate the extent to which other share our beliefs and behaviors

11

Population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

12

Random Sample

Sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

13

Naturalistic Observations

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Unable to control events, simply observing
Does not identify cause and effect
Observing in a natural setting

14

Correlations

Measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Just describe relations, not causality/causation

15

Scatterplots

Graph of two variables to reveal correlation

16

Illusory Correlation

Perception of a relationship where none exists

17

Experiment

When the investigator is able to control the situation and to decrease the possibility that unnoticed, outside variables will influence the results
Scientific procedure to determine cause and effect

18

Double-blind Procedure

When the research participants and the research staff are ignorant(blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo

19

Placebo Effect

Any effect on behavior caused by expectations alone
Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
Patients believe they are receiving the actual treatment

20

Experimental Condition

The participants who are exposed to the independent variable
Changes

21

Control Condition

The participants that serve as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment -- no independent variable applied
Dependent variable
Stays the same

22

Random Assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Assigning subjects to different treatments

23

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated (X)

24

Dependent Variable

The outcome factor (Y)
The variable that may change in response to manipulation

25

Mode

Number that appears the most

26

Mean

Average number of a set

27

Median

The middle of the set

28

Range

Largest number minus smallest number

29

Standard Deviation

How spread apart numbers are on average

30

Statistical Significance

Not occurring randomly

31

Culture

Arts and humanities of different societies

32

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
The I-Knew-It-All-Along phenomenon
One group gets info and the other groups gets the opposite info they both believe it is common sense