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Flashcards in Prologue Terms Deck (29):
1

Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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Empiricism

The view that knowledge comes from experience via senses

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Wilhelm Wundt

Did the first experiments
Opened the first laboratory in Leipzig, Germany

4

Structuralism

Introduced by Edward Titchener
An early school of psychology introduced introspection to explore structure

5

Edward Titchener

Opened the first US laboratory at Cornell University
Developed structuralism

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Introspection

Looking inward
Self reflection

7

Functionalism

Introduced by William James
Focused on how mental and behavioral processes function
How they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourished

8

William James

Wrote "Principles of Psychology"
One of the first U.S. Psychologists
Developed functionalism

9

Mary Calkins

Student of William James
Became a pioneering memory researcher
First female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)

10

Margaret Floy Washburn

First woman to receive Ph.D in psychology
Second APA woman president

10

Humanistic Psychology

Looking through the eyes of the observer and of the doer of behavior
Affiliation - need to belong/fit-in
Self esteem
How one can reach full potential
Free will
Psychological needs/safety = #1

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Nature vs. Nurture

Environment affects vs. genetics

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Natural Selection

Survival of the fittest

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Evolutionary Perspective

How evolution affects psychology

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Biological/Neuroscience Perspective

Role of genetics on behavior
Focuses on brain and nervous system
Chemical imbalances

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Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Perspective

Study of unconscious mind

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Behavioral Perspective

Focused on learned behaviors
Reinforcers and punishments

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Cognitive Perspective

Mental thought processes
How one interprets thoughts

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Social-Cultural Perspective

Awareness of individuals and how environment affects behavior
How race, religion, etc affects a person's behavior

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Basic Research

Systematic study to gain a greater knowledge

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Applied Research

Scientific study applied to solve problems

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Biological Psychologist

Uses biology to study behavior of humans

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Developmental Psychologist

Study of changes that occur throughout the course of life

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Cognitive Psychologist

Study of attention, language, memory, thinking

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Personality Psychologist

Study of variations in personality

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Social Psychologist

Study of thoughts, behavior, feelings influenced by others

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Counseling Psychology

Counseling processes dealing with outcome/prevention and health/strengths and weaknesses

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Clinical Psychology

Assessment and treatment/prevention of mental disorders

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Psychiatry

Gets medical degree
Study of treatment and more serious mental disorders