Chapter 8 Part Two Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Part Two Deck (24):
1

Positive Reinforcement

Strengthens the behavior it follows
Ex. Give candy to people who volunteer to help

2

Negative Reinforcement

Strengthens a response by removing an aversive stimulus after that response
Ex. Take away whining by giving candy

3

Reinforcement

Any behavior that strengthens the behavior it follows

4

Primary Reinforcers

Innately reinforcing stimuli
One that satisfies a biological need

5

Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcers

Stimuli that acquire their reinforcing power through their association with primary reinforcers
Ex. Thumbs up- is paired with smiles and nice words

6

Positive Punishment

Adding something aversive that decreases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

7

Negative Punishment

Withdraw a desirable stimulus to decrease the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

8

Punishment

An event that decreases the behavior it follows

9

Continuous Reinforcement

Operant procedure for reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Learn quickly
Extinction occurs quickly

10

Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement

Operant procedure of reinforcing a response occasionally
Learn slowly
More resistant to extinction

11

Fixed-Ratio Schedules

Reinforcement is presented after each response

12

Variable-Ratio Schedules

Reinforcement is presented after an unpredictable number of responses

13

Fixed-Interval Schedules

Response is reinforced after a specific time has elapsed

14

Variable-Interval Schedules

Responses are reinforced after an unpredictable intervals of time

15

Latent Learning

Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but only becomes apparent when there is an incentive to demonstrate it

16

Cognitive Map

The mental picture of one's environment

17

Intrinsic Motivation

The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake rather than for some external reason

18

Extrinsic Motivation

The desire to perform behavior because of the reward or to avoid punishment

19

Observational Leaning

Learning by watching and imitating the behavior of others

20

Modeling

Watching and then imitating a specific behavior

21

Mirror Neurons

Neural basis for observational learning
Impulses are generated when certain actions are performed of when the performing individual is observed

22

Albert Bandura

He proposed the "Social Learning Theory"
Learning happens by observation, self efficiency, and modeling
The performing of a task to meet a goal

23

Prosocial Behavior

Positive, helpful, and constructive behavior which is subject to the same principle of observational learning as undesirable behavior like aggression

24

Successive Approximation

You reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior, and you ignore all other responses