Chapter 9 Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Part One Deck (32):
1

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

2

Flashbulb Memories

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

3

Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system
Extracting meaning

4

Storage

The retention of encoding information over time

5

Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

6

Sensory Memory

The immediate brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

7

Short-Term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items (7 plus or minus 2)briefly before the information is stored and forgotten
Digits of phone number while dialing

8

Long-Term Memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

9

Working Memory

New understanding of short-term memory involving conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information and of information retrieved from long-term memory

10

Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space, time, and frequency and of well learned information such as word meaning

11

Effortfull Processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

12

Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information either to maintain it consciously or to encode it for storage

13

Spacing Effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through mass study or practice

14

Serial Position Effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list

15

Visual Encoding

The encoding of picture images

16

Acoustic Encoding

The encoding of a sound, especially the sound of words

17

Semantic Encoding

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

18

Imagery

Mental pictures (powerful with Semantic Encoding)

19

Rosy Retrospection

People recall events more positively than they evaluated them at the time they occurred

20

Mnemonic Devices

Memory aids

21

Method of Loci

A person imagines themselves moving through familiar locations and associates the location with a topic that needs to be remembered

22

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar manageable units automatically

23

Hierarchies

Broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

24

Iconic Memory

Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
Picture image lasting no more than a few seconds

25

Echoic Memory

Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
If attention is elsewhere, sounds can be recalled within 3-4 seconds

26

George Miller

He worked with short term memory
The seven item plus or minus 2 theory

27

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

An increase in a synapse's firing potential after a brief rapid stimulation
Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

28

Amnesia

Loss of memory

29

Implicit Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection

30

Explicit Memory

Memory of facts and experiences that no one can consciously know and declare

31

Hippocampus

A neural center that is located in the limbus system and helps process explicit memories for storage
Damage to right = no recall visual designs and location
Damage to left = no recall verbal information

32

Cerebellum

Form and store implicit memories created by classical conditioning