Chapter 7 - Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Biomechanics Deck (99)
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31

give an example of a first class lever

teeter-totter

32

give an example of a second class lever

wheelbarrow

33

give an example of a third class lever

barbaque tongs

34

factors affecting the moment of force

a balanced teeter-totter

35

newtons 1st law of motion

the law of inertia

36

the law of inertia

a body will maintain a state of rest or constant velocity unless acted on by an external force that changes the state

37

newtons 2nd law of motion

the law of acceleration

38

the law of acceleration

a force applied to a body causes an acceleration of that body of a magnitude proportional to the force, in the direction of the force, and inversely proportional to the body's mass

39

newtons 3rd law of motion

the law of reaction

40

the law of reaction

- for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
- the 2 acting forces are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction

41

give an example of the law of reaction (newtons 3rd law of motion)

the sprinter exerts a force on to the blocks and simultaneously the blocks exert an equal force back onto the sprinter

42

what is the action and what is the reaction in this example of newtons 3rd law?: the tires on a car push on the road and the road pushes on the tires

action: the tires on a car push on the road

reaction: the road pushes on the tires

43

what is the action and what is the reaction in this example of newtons 3rd law?: while swimming, you push the water backwards and the water pushes you forward

action: while swimming you push the water backwards

reaction: the water pushes you forward

44

what is the action and what is the reaction in this example of newtons 3rd law?: a rocket pushes out exhaust and the exhaust pushes the rocket forward

action: a rocket pushes out exhaust

Reaction: the exhaust pushes the rocket forward

45

why are the models of human motion developed?

because the total movement capacity of all the body structures is to complex to accurately analyze

46

why is the total movement capacity of all the body structures too complex to accurately analyze? (3 reasons)

1) anatomical difference in people related to race, age, gender, health and lifestyle
2) the body is susceptible to deformation and multi-segmental so that one segment affects the others during movement
3) sport skills occur in 3D often encountering all 3 planes and axis

47

what are the 3 human body models?

1) particle model
2) stick figure model
3) rigid segment model

48

particle model

used when the object of interest (the human body or an object) is airborne after being thrown, struck or kicked the body itself (i.e., jumping, diving, tumbling)

49

stick figure model

used when the object is in contact with its environment and generally gross motor skills in 2D (i.e., sprint starts, running, non rotational dive)

50

rigid segment model

used for more sophisticated quantitative analyses (3D) especially in multi-plane motions

51

what 2 things are required for rigid segment model?

camera and 3D analysis

52

what is the first preliminary step for analyzing human motion?

identify the system to be studied, which is to separate the object of interest from its surroundings

53

what is the second preliminary step for analyzing human motion?

identify the frame of reference in which the movement takes place

54

what is the third preliminary step for analyzing human motion?

identify the type of motion that is occurring, the body planes in which movement takes place (sagittal, frontal or transverse and
identify the axes of rotation about which rotational motion occurs (sagittal, frontal, or vertical)

55

what are the 3 types o motion?

linear, general and angular

56

motion

when all parts of the body move the same distance in the same direction at the same time

57

linear motion (AKA translation)

refers to movement of the body as a unit without individual segment parts of the body moving relative to one another

58

rectilinear motion

occurs when movement follows a straight line

59

curvilinear motion

occurs when the movement path is curved

60

angular motion (rotation)

occurs when a body moves along a circular path, through the same angle in the same direction and at the same time