Flashcards in Chapter 8-Rome:Preparation of the World for Christ Deck (117)
What is Italy's chief city that was the ruler of the Mediterranean basin in ancient times?
Who were the ancestors of the Romans who were Indo-European tribesmen who were also related to the ancient Greeks?
Which italic tribe settled by the Tiber River in west-central Italy on the plain of Latium?
What year was the traditional date for the founding of Rome?
What did the tiny Latin settlements call a common market or meeting place?
Who were the seafaring people from Asia Minor who appeared in Italy about 800 B.C.?
The Etruscans developed what two distinctive social classes that would characterize Roman society?
Patricians- upper-class "insiders"
Plebeians- lower-class "outsiders"
Who began colonizing the Mediterranean world extensively during the 700s B.C.?
When many settled in southern Italy and Sicily, the region became known as:
What city was founded in 814 B.C. as a Phoenician colony and trading post in North Africa?
Who were the Celtic barbarians from western Europe who were the last Indo-European people to enter Italy?
The Roman father traditionally used his authority to train his children carefully in the Roman ideals of:
Piety-a sense of duty
Gravity-seriousness of a purpose
Dignity-sense of personal worth
The most famous of Roman temples was the temple dedicated to the numerous gods of the empire called the:
What was the educated Greek often bought by Roman parents to tutor their sons and discipline them?
Between 753 and 509 B.C., Rome was ruled by kings;these Kings were chosen by a popular _________ representing the city's patrician families and clans composed of all adult male patricians.
The king of Rome was advised in his decisions by an august body of 100 patrician elders known as the:
The assembly was replaced by the ___________, which represented the 193 centuries.
Assembly of Centuries
When did the nobles of Rome lead a revolt in both patricians and plebeians against the tyranny of the last Etruscan king?
The revolt of the nobles in 509 B.C. abolished the monarchy and established the:
What is a representative form of civil government in which political power is vested in the electorate and in which more then one man rules?
Because Romans wanted to keep one man from becoming too powerful, they divided the authority of the earlier kings between two equal chief executives known as:
In times of great danger,a consul could appoint a _________ to rule Rome for six months.
What is the name for an official plebeian assembly?
What was the newer political office that represented the plebs called?
In 451 B.C. The plebs forced the patricians to publish the previously unwritten laws of Rome in what became known as the:
What boot-shaped peninsula, which is also known as the Apennine Peninsula, extends from Europe about 600 miles southwestward into the Mediterranean Sea?
What is a Roman military unit of 3,000-5,000 foot soldiers and cavalry which discouraged rebellion?
Rome and Carthage fought a series of three wars between 264 and 146 B.C. known as the:
In which war from 264-241 B.C. did Rome become the superior navy and gained control of the Mediterranean Sea, giving Rome the victory of this war?
First Punic War
What Carthaginian general traveled over the Alps into Italy with an army of men and elephants defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C.?
After the Battle of Cannae, the Romans dispatched another army under ________, to North Africa.
What battle did Hannibal lose to Scipio in 202 B.C., forcing the Carthaginians to sue for peace, relinquish their empire, and pay the Romans a huge indemnity?
Battle of Zama
In what war from 149-146 B.C. did the Numidians precipitate by attacking Carthage, forcing the Carthaginians to fight against a Roman ally, and thus bringing the Romans into the war and losing to the Romans?
Third Punic War
In what year had the Romans become the masters of the Mediterranean world?
What were the prisoners of war, slaves, or criminals forced to fight in public shows called?
What did the people of Rome call their free food and entertainment?
"Bread and circuses"
Who became tribune of Rome in 133 B.C.?
Who was the idol of the masses in the first civil war?
Who was the champion of the senate in the first civil war?
Who were the three leaders who formed the alliance known as the First Triumvirate?
Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed an alliance known as the:
Caesar disobeyed the senate and led his army across what river, causing civil war?
Who was the leader in Egypt who was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty?
Caesar introduced the 3651/4-day calendar known as the:
What is the exact date that Caesar was stabbed to death by a group of Senators?
March 15, 44 B.C.
What three leaders joined forces to form the Second Triumvirate?
Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus joined forces to form the:
Who was republican Rome's greatest orator and statesman who was assassinated by the Second Triumvirate?
In what battle did Octavian defeate Antony's fleet in 31 B.C., which was one of history's most decisive battles?
Battle of Actium
Octavian claimed several titles that indicated his authority which were:
Caesar- the heir of a distinguished Roman family
Pontifex Maximus-"supreme pontiff"
Augustus-"revered" a title of deity
The New Testament refers to Octavian as:
During who's reign was Jesus Christ born around 4 B.C. In Bethlehem of Judaea?
Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
Under Caesar Augustus began the famed __________ ("Roman peace"), 200 years of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.
Pax Romana (30 B.C.- A.D. 180)
After Caesar Augustus died, he was succeeded by a series of rulers known as the __________ who ruled from A.D. 14-68.
Who was Augustus's stepson who ruled ruled the Roman Empire during the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ and at the time of the Savior's death, resurrection, and ascension around A.D. 30?
Who was Tiberius's insane successor who was remembered for appointing his favorite horse to the senate?
Who succeeded Caligula,was his uncle, and was poisoned by his niece and fourth wife?
Agrippina the Younger poisoned her husband,the Roman ruler Claudius, so that her son, _______, could become emperor.
Who blamed the Christians for a disastrous fire in A.D. 64 that swept through the city of Rome and began the first great outbreak of persecution against the New Testament church?
Who finally emerged victorious and helped restore political and economic stability to the Roman Empire?
Vespasian and his two sons,_______ and _______, ruled from A.D. 69-96.
Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian- called the __________- ruled from A.D. 69-96.
When did Titus capture Jerusalem, as prophesied Christ some 40 years earlier?
What mountain in souther Italy completely buried the Roman cities of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae?
The Roman Empire attained its highest prosperity and power under the so-called five good emperors known as:
Hadrian,one of the "five good emperors",is remembered for the construction of:
Marcus Aurelius, a stoic philosopher, was renowned for his book:
Who was the brother of Tiberius Gracchus, and was elected tribune in 123 B.C.?
What brothers tried to bring aid to the poor and reform to the republic of Rome?
The Gracchus brothers
Who were the opposing generals in Rome's first civil war?
Marius and Sulla
After the Pax Romana, the army became supreme, and the empire was ruled by a succession of ____________, rival generals placed upon the throne for a time by warring armies.
Who came to power in A.D. 284 when the period of anarchy had reached its climax, and instituted various reforms that held the tottering empire together for another 200 years and ruled as "Augustus" in the east?
Who became the "Augustus"of the West, with his capital at Milan in northern Italy?
The empire was further subdivided into four:
The empire was further subdivided into four prefectures, each under a:
The Roman empire was further subdivided into four prefectures, each consisting of a number of:
The Roman Empire was further subdivided into further prefectures, consisting of a number of dioceses,each diocese consisted of several:
When Galerius died, he issued an edict of tolerance for Christians of the East, but it fell to __________ to make Christianity a legal religion throughout the empire; he also won a major victory at Milvian Bridge near Rome and was the first of Rome's "Christian emperors"
When did Constantine issue the famous Edict of Milan?
In A.D. 313, Constantine issued the famous _____________, which proclaimed equal rights for all religions.
Edict of Milan
Constantine summoned Christian leaders to the ___________ in 325 to create institutional unity in the church.
Council of Nicaea
Constantine established a new capital in 330 at the Greek city of __________(modern Istanbul in Turkey) in Asia Minor.
The city of Byzantium was late renamed __________ in honor of Constantine.
The city of Constantinople became the center of the flourishing ______________, which was to endure for over a millennium.
Eastern Roman Empire
In what year was the Roman Empire permanently divided into East and West by Emperor Theodosius I?
In A.D. 395 the Roman Empire was permanently divided into East and West by who?
Italy was invaded by the _______ in 409.
Italy was invaded by the Visigoths under ________ in 409.
The Visigoths defeated the Roman army, killing the the emperor Valens and cutting his army to pieces at:
Which group of barbarian invaders ravaged North Africa?
What were the four groups of barbarian invaders that included not only the Germanic tribesman?
Which group of barbarian invaders from Central Asia was led by Attila and was known as the "scourge of God"?
The Huns, known as the scourge of God, was led by who?
Who removed the last Roman emperor in A.D. 476, and was one of the Germanic chieftains and tribesmen's men?
In what year did Odoacer remove the last Roman emperor?
In A.D. 476, Odoacer removed the last Roman emperor; who was this emperor?
Roman's greatest contributions to civilization were the:
The Latin that most Romans spoke was the:
Vernacular, or Vulgar Latin
The vernacular Latin gave rise during the Middle Ages to the:
Classical, literary Latin became the:
During what age from the birth of Cicero to the death of Augustus did the Roman writers produce their greatest works?
The Golden Age of Latin Literature
Who was the master of Latin prose and his political treatise, "On the Commonwealth",is an eloquent statement of the political theory underlying the Roman republic?
Cicero wrote the political treatise,"__________," an eloquent statement of the political theory underlying the Roman republic.
"On the Commonwealth"
The greatest poet of the Golden Age was _______, who wrote the epic poem the "Aeneid"?
Virgil wrote the epic poem __________, that describes the legendary events that led to the founding of Rome.
After Virgil's death, who became Rome's leading poet who is especially known for beautiful lyric "Odes"?
The poet Horace is especially known for his beautiful lyric _________.
Which poet of the Golden Age wrote "Metamorphoses", which transmitted classical Greco-Roman mythology to the modern world?
Ovid wrote _________, which transmitted classical Greco-Roman mythology to the modern world.
What historian portrayed the lives of the 12 Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian and also mentions Jesus Christ in his writings?
What Greek biographer is best known for his masterpiece "Parallel Lives"?
What masterpiece written by Plutarch is a collection of 16 biographies arranged in groups of two in which a Greek orator, statesman, or warrior is paired with a Roman of a similar occupation?
The Romans believed in the concept of _________, the notion that all law derives from a single central source.
One of the principles of Roman law was _________, developed from the belief that all men share a common human nature.
One of the principles of Roman law is the concept of ________, the principle that laws should be sufficiently flexible to fit a large number of particular cases.
The principles of single sovereignty, universality, and equity are enshrined in what?