Chapter 8-Rome:Preparation of the World for Christ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8-Rome:Preparation of the World for Christ Deck (117):
1

What is Italy's chief city that was the ruler of the Mediterranean basin in ancient times?

Rome

2

Who were the ancestors of the Romans who were Indo-European tribesmen who were also related to the ancient Greeks?

Itali

3

Which italic tribe settled by the Tiber River in west-central Italy on the plain of Latium?

Latins

4

What year was the traditional date for the founding of Rome?

753 B.C.

5

What did the tiny Latin settlements call a common market or meeting place?

Forum

6

Who were the seafaring people from Asia Minor who appeared in Italy about 800 B.C.?

Etruscans

7

The Etruscans developed what two distinctive social classes that would characterize Roman society?

Patricians- upper-class "insiders"

Plebeians- lower-class "outsiders"

8

Who began colonizing the Mediterranean world extensively during the 700s B.C.?

Greeks

9

When many settled in southern Italy and Sicily, the region became known as:

Magna Graecia

10

What city was founded in 814 B.C. as a Phoenician colony and trading post in North Africa?

Carthage

11

Who were the Celtic barbarians from western Europe who were the last Indo-European people to enter Italy?

Gauls

12

The Roman father traditionally used his authority to train his children carefully in the Roman ideals of:

Piety-a sense of duty
Gravity-seriousness of a purpose
Dignity-sense of personal worth

13

The most famous of Roman temples was the temple dedicated to the numerous gods of the empire called the:

Pantheon

14

What was the educated Greek often bought by Roman parents to tutor their sons and discipline them?

Pedagogue

15

Between 753 and 509 B.C., Rome was ruled by kings;these Kings were chosen by a popular _________ representing the city's patrician families and clans composed of all adult male patricians.

Assembly

16

The king of Rome was advised in his decisions by an august body of 100 patrician elders known as the:

Senate

17

The assembly was replaced by the ___________, which represented the 193 centuries.

Assembly of Centuries

18

When did the nobles of Rome lead a revolt in both patricians and plebeians against the tyranny of the last Etruscan king?

509 B.C.

19

The revolt of the nobles in 509 B.C. abolished the monarchy and established the:

Roman Republic

20

What is a representative form of civil government in which political power is vested in the electorate and in which more then one man rules?

Republic

21

Because Romans wanted to keep one man from becoming too powerful, they divided the authority of the earlier kings between two equal chief executives known as:

Consuls

22

In times of great danger,a consul could appoint a _________ to rule Rome for six months.

Dictator

23

What is the name for an official plebeian assembly?

Concilium plebis

24

What was the newer political office that represented the plebs called?

Tribune

25

In 451 B.C. The plebs forced the patricians to publish the previously unwritten laws of Rome in what became known as the:

Twelve Tables

26

What boot-shaped peninsula, which is also known as the Apennine Peninsula, extends from Europe about 600 miles southwestward into the Mediterranean Sea?

Italy

27

What is a Roman military unit of 3,000-5,000 foot soldiers and cavalry which discouraged rebellion?

Legion

28

Rome and Carthage fought a series of three wars between 264 and 146 B.C. known as the:

Punic Wars

29

In which war from 264-241 B.C. did Rome become the superior navy and gained control of the Mediterranean Sea, giving Rome the victory of this war?

First Punic War

30

What Carthaginian general traveled over the Alps into Italy with an army of men and elephants defeated the Romans at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C.?

Hannibal

31

After the Battle of Cannae, the Romans dispatched another army under ________, to North Africa.

Scipio

32

What battle did Hannibal lose to Scipio in 202 B.C., forcing the Carthaginians to sue for peace, relinquish their empire, and pay the Romans a huge indemnity?

Battle of Zama

33

In what war from 149-146 B.C. did the Numidians precipitate by attacking Carthage, forcing the Carthaginians to fight against a Roman ally, and thus bringing the Romans into the war and losing to the Romans?

Third Punic War

34

In what year had the Romans become the masters of the Mediterranean world?

133 B.C.

35

What were the prisoners of war, slaves, or criminals forced to fight in public shows called?

Gladiators

36

What did the people of Rome call their free food and entertainment?

"Bread and circuses"

37

Who became tribune of Rome in 133 B.C.?

Tiberius Gracchus

38

Who was the idol of the masses in the first civil war?

Marius

39

Who was the champion of the senate in the first civil war?

Sulla

40

Who were the three leaders who formed the alliance known as the First Triumvirate?

Pompey
Caesar
Crassus

41

Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed an alliance known as the:

First Triumvirate

42

Caesar disobeyed the senate and led his army across what river, causing civil war?

Rubicon River

43

Who was the leader in Egypt who was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty?

Cleopatra

44

Caesar introduced the 3651/4-day calendar known as the:

Julian calendar

45

What is the exact date that Caesar was stabbed to death by a group of Senators?

March 15, 44 B.C.

46

What three leaders joined forces to form the Second Triumvirate?

Mark Antony
Octavian
Lepidus

47

Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus joined forces to form the:

Second Triumvirate

48

Who was republican Rome's greatest orator and statesman who was assassinated by the Second Triumvirate?

Cicero

49

In what battle did Octavian defeate Antony's fleet in 31 B.C., which was one of history's most decisive battles?

Battle of Actium

50

Octavian claimed several titles that indicated his authority which were:

Princeps-"first citizen"
Caesar- the heir of a distinguished Roman family
Imperator-"emperor"
Pontifex Maximus-"supreme pontiff"
Augustus-"revered" a title of deity

51

The New Testament refers to Octavian as:

Caesar Augustus

52

During who's reign was Jesus Christ born around 4 B.C. In Bethlehem of Judaea?

Octavian (Caesar Augustus)

53

Under Caesar Augustus began the famed __________ ("Roman peace"), 200 years of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.

Pax Romana (30 B.C.- A.D. 180)

54

After Caesar Augustus died, he was succeeded by a series of rulers known as the __________ who ruled from A.D. 14-68.

Claudian emperors

55

Who was Augustus's stepson who ruled ruled the Roman Empire during the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ and at the time of the Savior's death, resurrection, and ascension around A.D. 30?

Tiberius

56

Who was Tiberius's insane successor who was remembered for appointing his favorite horse to the senate?

Caligula

57

Who succeeded Caligula,was his uncle, and was poisoned by his niece and fourth wife?

Claudius

58

Agrippina the Younger poisoned her husband,the Roman ruler Claudius, so that her son, _______, could become emperor.

Nero

59

Who blamed the Christians for a disastrous fire in A.D. 64 that swept through the city of Rome and began the first great outbreak of persecution against the New Testament church?

Nero

60

Who finally emerged victorious and helped restore political and economic stability to the Roman Empire?

Vespasian

61

Vespasian and his two sons,_______ and _______, ruled from A.D. 69-96.

Titus
Domitian

62

Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian- called the __________- ruled from A.D. 69-96.

Flavian emperors

63

When did Titus capture Jerusalem, as prophesied Christ some 40 years earlier?

A.D. 70

64

What mountain in souther Italy completely buried the Roman cities of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae?

Mt. Vesuvius

65

The Roman Empire attained its highest prosperity and power under the so-called five good emperors known as:

Nerva
Trajan
Hadrian
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius

66

Hadrian,one of the "five good emperors",is remembered for the construction of:

Hadrian's Wall

67

Marcus Aurelius, a stoic philosopher, was renowned for his book:

Meditations

68

Who was the brother of Tiberius Gracchus, and was elected tribune in 123 B.C.?

Gaius Gracchus

69

What brothers tried to bring aid to the poor and reform to the republic of Rome?

The Gracchus brothers

70

Who were the opposing generals in Rome's first civil war?

Marius and Sulla

71

After the Pax Romana, the army became supreme, and the empire was ruled by a succession of ____________, rival generals placed upon the throne for a time by warring armies.

"Barracks emperors"

72

Who came to power in A.D. 284 when the period of anarchy had reached its climax, and instituted various reforms that held the tottering empire together for another 200 years and ruled as "Augustus" in the east?

Diocletian

73

Who became the "Augustus"of the West, with his capital at Milan in northern Italy?

Maximian

74

The empire was further subdivided into four:

Prefectures

75

The empire was further subdivided into four prefectures, each under a:

Prefect

76

The Roman empire was further subdivided into four prefectures, each consisting of a number of:

Dioceses

77

The Roman Empire was further subdivided into further prefectures, consisting of a number of dioceses,each diocese consisted of several:

Provinces

78

When Galerius died, he issued an edict of tolerance for Christians of the East, but it fell to __________ to make Christianity a legal religion throughout the empire; he also won a major victory at Milvian Bridge near Rome and was the first of Rome's "Christian emperors"

Constantine I

79

When did Constantine issue the famous Edict of Milan?

A.D. 313

80

In A.D. 313, Constantine issued the famous _____________, which proclaimed equal rights for all religions.

Edict of Milan

81

Constantine summoned Christian leaders to the ___________ in 325 to create institutional unity in the church.

Council of Nicaea

82

Constantine established a new capital in 330 at the Greek city of __________(modern Istanbul in Turkey) in Asia Minor.

Byzantium

83

The city of Byzantium was late renamed __________ in honor of Constantine.

Constantinople

84

The city of Constantinople became the center of the flourishing ______________, which was to endure for over a millennium.

Eastern Roman Empire

85

In what year was the Roman Empire permanently divided into East and West by Emperor Theodosius I?

A.D. 395

86

In A.D. 395 the Roman Empire was permanently divided into East and West by who?

Theodosius I

87

Italy was invaded by the _______ in 409.

Visigoths

88

Italy was invaded by the Visigoths under ________ in 409.

Alaric

89

The Visigoths defeated the Roman army, killing the the emperor Valens and cutting his army to pieces at:

Adrianople

90

Which group of barbarian invaders ravaged North Africa?

Vandals

91

What were the four groups of barbarian invaders that included not only the Germanic tribesman?

Angles
Saxons
Jutes
Huns

92

Which group of barbarian invaders from Central Asia was led by Attila and was known as the "scourge of God"?

The Huns

93

The Huns, known as the scourge of God, was led by who?

Attila

94

Who removed the last Roman emperor in A.D. 476, and was one of the Germanic chieftains and tribesmen's men?

Odoacer

95

In what year did Odoacer remove the last Roman emperor?

A.D. 476

96

In A.D. 476, Odoacer removed the last Roman emperor; who was this emperor?

Romulus Augustulus

97

Roman's greatest contributions to civilization were the:

Latin language
Roman law
Republican government

98

The Latin that most Romans spoke was the:

Vernacular, or Vulgar Latin

99

The vernacular Latin gave rise during the Middle Ages to the:

Romance languages

100

Classical, literary Latin became the:

Medieval Latin

101

During what age from the birth of Cicero to the death of Augustus did the Roman writers produce their greatest works?

The Golden Age of Latin Literature

102

Who was the master of Latin prose and his political treatise, "On the Commonwealth",is an eloquent statement of the political theory underlying the Roman republic?

Cicero

103

Cicero wrote the political treatise,"__________," an eloquent statement of the political theory underlying the Roman republic.

"On the Commonwealth"

104

The greatest poet of the Golden Age was _______, who wrote the epic poem the "Aeneid"?

Virgil

105

Virgil wrote the epic poem __________, that describes the legendary events that led to the founding of Rome.

The "Aeneid"

106

After Virgil's death, who became Rome's leading poet who is especially known for beautiful lyric "Odes"?

Horace

107

The poet Horace is especially known for his beautiful lyric _________.

"Odes"

108

Which poet of the Golden Age wrote "Metamorphoses", which transmitted classical Greco-Roman mythology to the modern world?

Ovid

109

Ovid wrote _________, which transmitted classical Greco-Roman mythology to the modern world.

"Metamorphosis"

110

What historian portrayed the lives of the 12 Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian and also mentions Jesus Christ in his writings?

Suetonius

111

What Greek biographer is best known for his masterpiece "Parallel Lives"?

Plutarch

112

What masterpiece written by Plutarch is a collection of 16 biographies arranged in groups of two in which a Greek orator, statesman, or warrior is paired with a Roman of a similar occupation?

"Parallel Lives"

113

The Romans believed in the concept of _________, the notion that all law derives from a single central source.

Single sovereignty

114

One of the principles of Roman law was _________, developed from the belief that all men share a common human nature.

Universality

115

One of the principles of Roman law is the concept of ________, the principle that laws should be sufficiently flexible to fit a large number of particular cases.

Equity

116

The principles of single sovereignty, universality, and equity are enshrined in what?

Justinian Code

117

It was during the rule of Rome that the focal point of all world history took place:

The life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ