- Obligate intracellular pathogen (OIP)*
- Does NOT gram stain*
- Do not make their own ATP
- Infect mucous membranes*
- causes Cytoplasmic “inclusion” bodies*
what are the 2 forms of chlamydia?
EB = Elementary body*
RB = Reticulate body*
elementary body is found in what stage?
where is it found?
Infectious stage* – attaches to host cell – internalized
does the elementary body replicate?
the elementary body will transform into what?
Transform into Reticular body within host cell
where is the Reticulate body* found?
does it replicate?
into what will it transform?
- Found inside cytoplasmic vacuole of host cell
- it replicates
- elementary body
what is this?
chlamydia, cytoplasmic inclusion body
what cytologic stain can be used to view chlamydia?
what other technique can be used for chlamydia?
pap smear *
Immunofluorescent stains (better) *
what is this?
what technique is this?
what are the medically important chlamydia and chlamydophila?
what are the different chlamydia trachomatis and what will they cause?
A, B, Ba, C = Trachoma (blinding ocular disease)
D - K = Urogenital infections (STD)
L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
what will be found inside host cells, metabolically active and replicating with chlamydia trachomatis?
Reticulate bodies *
what is the inactive, extracellular infective form of chlamydia trachomatis?
elementary bodies *
what stain can be used to view chalmydia trachomatis?
Not seen on gram stain*
what is the Reservoir for chlamydia trachomatis?
Human genital tract and eyes *
Transmission of chlamydia trachomatis?
Sexual contact and during birth
Trachoma transmitted by - hand to eye contact and flies
what cells will chlamydia trachomatis infect?
Infects non-ciliated columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells of mucosal surfaces *
chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of what in the US?
Most common bacterial cause of STD in USA *
is it always symptomatic?
no, can be asymptomatic
what can chlamydia trachomatis cause in males?
Nonspecific urethritis (non-gonococcal urethritis) *
what symptoms will men present with, in an infection with chlamydia trachomatis?
- Dysuria (painful urination) and
- Thin watery discharge containing
- Numerous neutrophils but NO bacteria (on Gram staining) * = sterile pyuria *
what symptoms will women present with?
Urethritis and cervicitis *
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) *
Urethritis and cervicitis* in pregnant women infected with chlamydia can lead newborns to what?
conjunctivitis / atypical pneumonia in newborns *
how does pelvic inflammatory disease in women look like?
there is potential for scarring in what part of the female structures? which can lead to what?
- Sexually transmitted ascending infection of female genital tract
- mucopurulent discharge
- Potential for fallopian tube scarring and for ectopic pregnancy* as a result
what complications can occur with chlamydia?
- Conjunctivitis (noninfectious)
- Urethritis (due to Chlamydia trachomatis)
- Reactive Arthritis (seronegative)
and 1 of these:
1) Achilles tendinitis
2) Mucocutaneous lesions
what complications can occur in newborns?
Neonatal Conjunctivitis* (ophthalmia neonatorum)
Infant Atypical pneumonia * (interstitial pneumonia)
neonatal conjunctivitis is Characterized by what?
how is it treated?
Interstitial pneumonia in newborns is characterized by what?
- rhinitis followed by bronchitis
- characteristic dry cough (Staccato cough- very short and sharp).
what does chlamydia serotype L1, L2, L3 cause?
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
what is Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)?
painless papule or an ulcer develops on the genital mucosa or nearby skin that then heals
Inflammation of lymphnodes draining the area causing swollen, tender lymphadenopathy “buboes”
Groove sign due to enlargement of both the femoral and inguinal nodes
how is Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) treated?
can c. trachomatis be cultured in cell-free media? where can it be grown?
no, only in Tissue/cell cultures * or embryonated eggs
what is the treatment for ocular or genital infections with chlamydia? what if there is an STD?
Azithromycin or doxycycline
in STD: add ceftriaxone (like with gonorrhea)
with what will you Treat LGV with?
Doxycycline or erythromycin
how do you treat newborn conjunctivitis or pneumonia?
what is the biology of Chlamydophila pneumoniae?
Obligate Intracellular bacterium
what is the reservoir for chlamydophila pneumoniae?
Human respiratory tract
what is the Transmission of chlamydophila pneumoniae?
Diseases caused by chlamydophila pneumoniae?
- Sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis
- Atypical “walking “ pneumonia *
what defines atypical "walking" pneumonia?
Scant sputum, dry cough and hoarseness
what is the Treatment for chlamydophila pneumoniae?
Macrolides and tetracycline
chlamydophila pneumoniae has a Potential association with what?
how is Chlamydophila psittaci acquired?
inhalation* of C. psittaci from birds
where do we find chlamydophila psittaci Reservoir?
Aerosols of dried bird secretions and feces *
chalmydophila psittaci is a Occupational hazard for whom?
Vets, zoo-keepers, petshop workers *
what will chlamydophila psittaci cause?
Interstitial pneumonia * (CNS and GI symptoms may be present)
what is the Treatment for chlamydophila psittaci?