- Obligate intracellular pathogen (OIP)*
- Does NOT gram stain*
- Do not make their own ATP
- Infect mucous membranes*
- causes Cytoplasmic “inclusion” bodies*
what are the 2 forms of chlamydia?
EB = Elementary body*
RB = Reticulate body*
elementary body is found in what stage?
where is it found?
Infectious stage* – attaches to host cell – internalized
does the elementary body replicate?
the elementary body will transform into what?
Transform into Reticular body within host cell
where is the Reticulate body* found?
does it replicate?
into what will it transform?
- Found inside cytoplasmic vacuole of host cell
- it replicates
- elementary body
what is this?
chlamydia, cytoplasmic inclusion body
what cytologic stain can be used to view chlamydia?
what other technique can be used for chlamydia?
pap smear *
Immunofluorescent stains (better) *
what is this?
what technique is this?
what are the medically important chlamydia and chlamydophila?
what are the different chlamydia trachomatis and what will they cause?
A, B, Ba, C = Trachoma (blinding ocular disease)
D - K = Urogenital infections (STD)
L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
what will be found inside host cells, metabolically active and replicating with chlamydia trachomatis?
Reticulate bodies *
what is the inactive, extracellular infective form of chlamydia trachomatis?
elementary bodies *
what stain can be used to view chalmydia trachomatis?
Not seen on gram stain*
what is the Reservoir for chlamydia trachomatis?
Human genital tract and eyes *
Transmission of chlamydia trachomatis?
Sexual contact and during birth
Trachoma transmitted by - hand to eye contact and flies
what cells will chlamydia trachomatis infect?
Infects non-ciliated columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells of mucosal surfaces *
chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of what in the US?
Most common bacterial cause of STD in USA *
is it always symptomatic?
no, can be asymptomatic
what can chlamydia trachomatis cause in males?
Nonspecific urethritis (non-gonococcal urethritis) *
what symptoms will men present with, in an infection with chlamydia trachomatis?
- Dysuria (painful urination) and
- Thin watery discharge containing
- Numerous neutrophils but NO bacteria (on Gram staining) * = sterile pyuria *
what symptoms will women present with?
Urethritis and cervicitis *
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) *
Urethritis and cervicitis* in pregnant women infected with chlamydia can lead newborns to what?
conjunctivitis / atypical pneumonia in newborns *
how does pelvic inflammatory disease in women look like?
there is potential for scarring in what part of the female structures? which can lead to what?
- Sexually transmitted ascending infection of female genital tract
- mucopurulent discharge
- Potential for fallopian tube scarring and for ectopic pregnancy* as a result
what complications can occur with chlamydia?
- Conjunctivitis (noninfectious)
- Urethritis (due to Chlamydia trachomatis)
- Reactive Arthritis (seronegative)
and 1 of these:
1) Achilles tendinitis
2) Mucocutaneous lesions
what complications can occur in newborns?
Neonatal Conjunctivitis* (ophthalmia neonatorum)
Infant Atypical pneumonia * (interstitial pneumonia)
neonatal conjunctivitis is Characterized by what?
how is it treated?
Interstitial pneumonia in newborns is characterized by what?
- rhinitis followed by bronchitis
- characteristic dry cough (Staccato cough- very short and sharp).
what does chlamydia serotype L1, L2, L3 cause?
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)