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A-Level PE Anatomy And Physiology > Disease Linked To Exercise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disease Linked To Exercise Deck (33)
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What are the three types of strokes

Ischaemic stroke
Haemorrhagic stroke
ITA stroke


What is a ischaemic stroke

An ischaemic stroke is caused by a blockage that prevents O2 from reaching the brain


What is a Haemorrhagic stroke

A haemorrhagic stroke is one where there is a bleed in or around the brain


What is an ITA stroke

An ITA stroke is a mini ischaemic stroke where symptoms last for less that 24 hours and caused by a temporary blockage


Define sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle is an inactive lifestyle


Define atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a condition where fatty plaque builds up in the artery walls causing them to narrow and their lumen to narrow


Define CHD

CHD is a condition where fatty plaque builds up in the coronary arteries walls causing the lumen to narrow and a reduction in blood flow to the cardiac muscle


Define coronary arteries

Coronary arteries are arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the cardiac muscle


Define angina

Angina is a condition where there is a partial blockage in a coronary artery causing chest pain due to a lack of O2 to the cardiac muscle


Define heart attack

Heart attack is where there is a complete blockage in a coronary artery causing restriction of O2 to the cardiac muscle


Define coronary risk factors

Coronary risk factors are conditions or habits that increase the risk of a heart attack and are lifestyle choices


Name 3 examples of coronary risk factors

1. Obesity
2. Smoking
3. High LDL cholesterol diet
4. Hypertension


Define hypertension

Hypertension is where you have abnormally high blood pressure


Define stroke

A stroke is where the O2 supply is cut off from the brain


Define LDL cholesterol

LDL cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) builds up as fatty plaque in the blood vessels


Define HDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) reduces levels of LDL in the blood and clears artery walls of the fatty plaque


How does cardiac hypertrophy reduce the risk of CV disease (3 things)

1. Reduce resting HR
2. Increase SV
3. Decrease CV strain


How has any increased efficiency of coronary arteries helped prevent CV diseases

Increasing efficiency means more blood can be delivered to the cardiac muscle / min


Name 3 ways in which increases elasticity of arteries has reduced the risk of getting a CV disease

1. Reduced blood pressure
2. Widstand a higher blood pressure
3. More efficient vascular shunt mechanism


Name 2 adaptations that make the blood resistance to a CV disease

1. Decreases LDL and increases HDL so fatty plaque in arteries is reduced
2. Decreased blood viscosity, increases blood pressure and so decreases blood pressure


How other factor caused by exercise has reduced the risk of a CV disease

Bodyweight management and a healthy energy balance


What are the two respiratory diseases you need to know

1. Asthma
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


Name 3 symptoms of asthma

1. Shortness of breath
2. Coughing
3. Wheezing
4. Tight chest


Name 3 triggers of asthma

1. Exercise induced asthma
2. Pollen
3. Pollution


Name 3 measures of asthma control

1. Exercise
2. Healthy diet
3. Inhalers


Define asthma

The reversible narrowing of respiratory airways causing inflammation and increasing mucus production


Define respiratory muscle training

Breathing exercises to increase the strength and endurance of respiratory muscles normally aimed at people who suffer from asthma and COPD


Define COPD

COPD is a group of lung conditions that make it hard to hard to empty air from the lungs because the airways have been narrowed (long term health condition)


Name 3 symptoms of COPD

1. Shortness of breath
2. Ongoing Cough that produces a lot of mucus
3. Wheezing
4. Chest pain


Name 3 causes of COPD

1. Smoking
2. Decreased elasticity of airways
3. Permanent airway narrowing

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