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A-Level PE Anatomy And Physiology > Disease Linked To Exercise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disease Linked To Exercise Deck (33)
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1

What are the three types of strokes

Ischaemic stroke
Haemorrhagic stroke
ITA stroke

2

What is a ischaemic stroke

An ischaemic stroke is caused by a blockage that prevents O2 from reaching the brain

3

What is a Haemorrhagic stroke

A haemorrhagic stroke is one where there is a bleed in or around the brain

4

What is an ITA stroke

An ITA stroke is a mini ischaemic stroke where symptoms last for less that 24 hours and caused by a temporary blockage

5

Define sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle is an inactive lifestyle

6

Define atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a condition where fatty plaque builds up in the artery walls causing them to narrow and their lumen to narrow

7

Define CHD

CHD is a condition where fatty plaque builds up in the coronary arteries walls causing the lumen to narrow and a reduction in blood flow to the cardiac muscle

8

Define coronary arteries

Coronary arteries are arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the cardiac muscle

9

Define angina

Angina is a condition where there is a partial blockage in a coronary artery causing chest pain due to a lack of O2 to the cardiac muscle

10

Define heart attack

Heart attack is where there is a complete blockage in a coronary artery causing restriction of O2 to the cardiac muscle

11

Define coronary risk factors

Coronary risk factors are conditions or habits that increase the risk of a heart attack and are lifestyle choices

12

Name 3 examples of coronary risk factors

1. Obesity
2. Smoking
3. High LDL cholesterol diet
4. Hypertension

13

Define hypertension

Hypertension is where you have abnormally high blood pressure

14

Define stroke

A stroke is where the O2 supply is cut off from the brain

15

Define LDL cholesterol

LDL cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) builds up as fatty plaque in the blood vessels

16

Define HDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol (high density lipoprotein) reduces levels of LDL in the blood and clears artery walls of the fatty plaque

17

How does cardiac hypertrophy reduce the risk of CV disease (3 things)

1. Reduce resting HR
2. Increase SV
3. Decrease CV strain

18

How has any increased efficiency of coronary arteries helped prevent CV diseases

Increasing efficiency means more blood can be delivered to the cardiac muscle / min

19

Name 3 ways in which increases elasticity of arteries has reduced the risk of getting a CV disease

1. Reduced blood pressure
2. Widstand a higher blood pressure
3. More efficient vascular shunt mechanism

20

Name 2 adaptations that make the blood resistance to a CV disease

1. Decreases LDL and increases HDL so fatty plaque in arteries is reduced
2. Decreased blood viscosity, increases blood pressure and so decreases blood pressure

21

How other factor caused by exercise has reduced the risk of a CV disease

Bodyweight management and a healthy energy balance

22

What are the two respiratory diseases you need to know

1. Asthma
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

23

Name 3 symptoms of asthma

1. Shortness of breath
2. Coughing
3. Wheezing
4. Tight chest

24

Name 3 triggers of asthma

1. Exercise induced asthma
2. Pollen
3. Pollution

25

Name 3 measures of asthma control

1. Exercise
2. Healthy diet
3. Inhalers

26

Define asthma

The reversible narrowing of respiratory airways causing inflammation and increasing mucus production

27

Define respiratory muscle training

Breathing exercises to increase the strength and endurance of respiratory muscles normally aimed at people who suffer from asthma and COPD

28

Define COPD

COPD is a group of lung conditions that make it hard to hard to empty air from the lungs because the airways have been narrowed (long term health condition)

29

Name 3 symptoms of COPD

1. Shortness of breath
2. Ongoing Cough that produces a lot of mucus
3. Wheezing
4. Chest pain

30

Name 3 causes of COPD

1. Smoking
2. Decreased elasticity of airways
3. Permanent airway narrowing

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