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A-Level PE Anatomy And Physiology > Flexabilty > Flashcards

Flashcards in Flexabilty Deck (28)
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Define static flexibility

The range of motion around a joint in a fixed position


Define static active flexibility

When the performer themselves (using the agonist muscle without any other assistance) moves a joint to the point of resistance


Define static passive flexibility

When a joint is moved to the point of resistance with assistance (such as a partner, another body part or the force of gravity)


Define dynamic flexibility

The range of motion around a joint moving at speed


What sports is static flexibility key in

Sports where joints are held towards their range of motion


What sports is dynamic flexibility good in

Sports where technique is a key aspect


What are the 4 factors that effect flexibility

1. Joint type
2. Age
3. Gender
4. Length of surrounding connective tissue


Explain how the type of joint effects flexibility

The joint type determines the number of planes a joint can move in and therefore its ROM


Explain how the length of surrounding connective tissue effects flexibility

The longer the length and elasticity of the surrounding tissue the greater the ROM


Explain how age effects flexibility

Flexibility is the greatest in childhood and declines with age as the elasticity in the surrounding tissue is lost


Describe how gender effects flexibility

Females tend to have greater flexibility than males did to the higher levels of the hormones oestrogen and relaxin. These hormones increase connective tissue elasticity


How long is the sit and reach test held for

2 seconds


Describe the goniometry test

A double armed single ruler is used. It measures the angle in degrees from a neutral starting position to position at the full range of movement at a specific joint


Name 2 benefits of the sit and reach test

1. Equipment is relatively cheap so is accessible
2. The test is easy to administer
3. Standardised tables are available for results comparison


Name 2 drawbacks of the sit and reach test

1. Limited usage as only testes the static flexibility of the lower back and hip joint
2. Performers must warm up and be careful not to use it as a dynamic exercise as its not to be performed at speed


Name 2 benefits of the goniometry test

1. Goniometry can be used to measure flexibility of any joint in any range of motion
2. As long as the correct technique is used accurate and valid measurements are given


Name 2 drawbacks of the goniometry test

1. Can be difficult to locate the joint centre where the pivot of the goniometer must be placed
2. Test is invalid and unreliable if the correct procedure is not followed


Describe active stretching (3 parts)

1. Unassisted voluntary static contraction of an agonist muscle to stretch connective tissue in antagonist just beyond its point of resistance
2. Position held using the strength of the agonist muscle
3. Position held for 10 seconds


Describe passive stretching (3 parts)

1. Movement of a joint into a stretched position with assistance from a partner or stretching aid
2. The stretching aid can be a different body part, exerciser band or gravity
3. Held for up to 30 seconds


Describe isometric stretching (3 parts)

1. A passive stretch is performed
2. The stretched muscle undergoes an isometric contraction for 10 seconds
3. Resistance is needed to ensure no movement takes place
4. The muscle is then relaxed for at least 20 seconds


Describe proprioceptive neuromuscular stretching (PNF)

1. Uses passive and isometric techniques to inhibit stretch reflex and allow a greater ROM
2. Passive stretch
3. Agonist isometrically contracts against a resistance for 10 seconds
4. Relax and repeat. The second stretch will have a greater ROM than the first one


Define dynamic stretching

Moving a joint through its full range of motion with control during entry and exit of the stretch


Name a benefit of dynamic stretching

Increases speed of contraction so is a good warm up for explosive movements


Define ballistic stretching

Incorporates swinging or bounding movements thus using momentum to move a joint forcibly through its extreme range of motion


Why is ballistic stretching bad

Can lead to injury if performer not already flexible as it initiates stretch reflex. The muscle contracts but at the same time is being stretched further and so can lead to muscle tears


What are the two long term adaptations to stretch training

1. Increasing resting length of muscle and soft tissue
2. Increased elasticity of muscle and soft tissue


Explain the effect of increased resting length of muscle and soft tissue

Muscle spindles adapt to a new resting length which delays the stretch reflex and can stretch further before it contracts


Explain the effect of increased elasticity of muscle and soft tissue

1. Increased stretch of the antagonist before the stretch reflex occurs allowing for a more forceful contraction of the agonist
2. Risk of injury decreased

Decks in A-Level PE Anatomy And Physiology Class (35):