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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (485)
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31

anagenesis graph geological time vs. trait condition

relatively straight line

32

cladogenesis graph of geological time vs. trait condition

branching tree

33

when life began on earth

first life developed on earth ~3billion years ago

34

total number of species on earth

8-100 million

35

Subsections of behavioural ecology

optimal foraging
territoriality
sex and mating systems
group living
life histories

36

first hard shelled organisms

542mya explosion of diversity

37

mass extinction

250mya
~94% of life extinct

38

diversification of mammals and birds

65mya

39

Foraging decisions

large/small, soft/hard, plant/animal, sweet/sour, uncommon/common, closer/more quality, opportunistic?

40

OFT

optimal foraging theory

41

optimal foraging theory

rules in optimizing choice of food/prey

42

3 subsets of OFT

preference for food with greatest net energy gain
feed more selectively when food is abundant
low quality food only when profitable food is scarce

43

optimal foraging, net energy gain

catching difficulty, amount of prey that can be consumed

44

Pied-wagtail (bird) foraging strategies

beetle size most eaten- not biggest or most common
biggest beetles take longer to eat
7mm beetle provides most calories/handling time

45

intrinsic quality of food

amino acids, fatty acids, salts, vitamins, trace elements

46

importance of sodium

primary extracellular ion, major role in body fluid volume, acid-base balance, tissue pH, muscle function, nerve synapse

47

sodium defficiencies

on average animals are sodium deficient
plants do not contain sodium
why animals are given salt licks
aquatic plants are rich in sodium

48

primary reason for animals to move to coastal regions

compensation for sodium deficiency

49

aquatic plant properties

low calories
high Na levels
high moisture (bulk)

50

Terrestrial plant properties

High calories
Low Na levels
low moisture

51

Aquatic vs. terrestrial plants in moose diet

low terrestrial would require high aquatic intake for energy
stomach not large enough for high aquatic intake
high terrestrial not enough energy or sodium
small range for optimal diet

52

bison foraging strategy

migrate to salt lakes

53

Patch foraging time

food occurs in a patchy distribution and in patches of different size

54

optimizing foraging time among patches

concentrate foraging activity in most productive patches
ignore patches of low productivity
stay with patch until profitability falls to level equal to average for all foraging patches combined

55

as time spent in foraging patch increases

energy obtained 'flattens out'

56

leave foraging patch when

probability is that the next patch will be more dense

57

time to spend in foraging patch graph

cumulative net food gain vs. time spent in patch

58

if it takes a long time to obtain food

animals spend more time on that food
birds that open containers easily didn't stay long

59

foraging time vs. predation risk graph

state of hunger dictates willingness to risk predation
starving- straight line, foraging activity is independent of predation risk
very hungry- sloped line, foraging activity decreases linearly with increased predation
slightly hungry- no foraging activity with high predation

60

Home range

area over which an animal travels in search of food/mates/resources and which is not defended
present in majority of animal species