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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (485)
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61

territoriality

defines of an area and active exclusion of resource use by others through display, advertisement or defense

62

Territoriality is common in

predators (african lion, cheetah, hyaena, bear, eagle, hawk, owl)
birds during nesting
fish during reproduction
social insects (ants, bees, wasp, dragonfly)

63

Influences on size of territory

body size, aggressive behaviour, habitat quality, population density, competition with others, ability to share resources

64

black-capped chickadee territoriality

male sings to mark territory
same species avoid each others territory, other species do not (intraspecific competition)

65

Great Tit territoriality experiment

Remove individual 3 to see if there would be a change in territories, boundaries expanded, new arrivals came
was 3 dominant to the others? defended territory more..

66

larger territory =

more food, shelter, reproduction
harder to defend
want largest area with lowest cost

67

determining optimal territory size from benefit/cost vs. territory size graph

optimal size is where there is the largest slope on benefit curve

68

maximum territory size from benefit/cost vs. territory size graph

where benefit curve flattens out

69

changes in optimal territory size

ex. predator moves into area

70

Asexual reproduction

offspring genetically identical to parent
common in bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, plants
occasional in vertebrates
harder for species to persist

71

predictor of asexual reproduction

small, short lifespan animals
consistent environment

72

asexual species using sexual reproduction at particular stages of life

times of stress

73

Sexual reproduction

majority of species
genotype different from mother and father

74

in changing environment/niche, new genotypes may have

higher reproductive output than either parental genotype

75

categories of sexual reproduction

dioecious
monoecious

76

dioecious

'two houses' 'two sexes'
male/female organs on separate individuals
~equal sex ratio
majority of species

77

monoecious

'one house'
m/f organs on same individual
bisexual or hermaphrodite

78

types of hermaphrodites

simultaneous hermaphrodite
sequential hermaphrodite

79

simultaneous hermaphrodite

both sets of reproductive organs at same time
common in plants/invertebrates
can't mate with self

80

sequential hermaphrodites

m/f reproductive parts at different times
common in coral reef fish

81

ontogeny

origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form

82

example of simultaneous hermaphrodites

slugs, worms

83

example of sequential hermaphrodite

Wrasse
small ones- genderless
medium- female (beta position)
large- male (alpha position)

84

simultaneous/sequential hermaphrodites don't have

sex determining chromosomes

85

Mating structures

Panmixis
Polygamy
Monogamy

86

Panmixis

unrestricted random mating
all individuals equally potential partners
sexes look alike (monomorphic)
eggs and sperm dropped all over the place

87

panmixis examples

some marine invertebrates
marine schooling fish

88

Polygamy

many marriages, multiple partners
widespread
sexes look different (dimorphic)
males often larger/more elaborate

89

types of polygamy

Polygyny
Polyandry

90

polygyny

female defense polygyny- individual males defend groups of females
resource defense polygyny- individual males defend resources which female seek out