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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (485)
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91

polygyny examples

fish, amphibians, reptiles, songbirds, mammals

92

female defense polygyny examples

deer, primates

93

resource defense polygyny examples

fish, songbirds

94

polyandry

many males, single/few females
males take on 'mother' roles- incubate eggs, sexually inactive
sexual genes are down regulated
females compete for males and defend resources

95

polyandry example

shorebirds

96

monogamy

serial or lifetime
one marriage, high fidelity to single partner
care for young for a long time, often predators
bi-parental care required to raise young (or they die)
sexes usually look similar (monomorphic)

97

monogamy examples

carrion beetle, most seabirds, swans, hawks, beavers, weasels, wolves

98

new data on genetic fingerprinting indicate offspring of monogamous couples

are often sired by more than one father
socially monogamous (cheating)

99

extra pair copulations (EPC)

copulation with a male other than the bonded male, gives birth to offspring whose father is not the bonded male

100

fitness of offspring is a function of

who female mates with (genetic makeup)

101

females choosier than males in mate choice

fitness cost is greater than in males (limited eggs 400 vs. unlimited sperm 200 million per ejaculate)

102

sexual selection

mate choice- tendency for individual to be selective in whom they choose to mate with

103

male fitness increased by

maximizing number of fertilized eggs (increased number of females)

104

female fitness is increased by

maximizing genetic quality and genetic variability of their offspring

105

female mate choice criteria

nuptial gift
dominant/strong male preference
handicapped male hypothesis
parasite free male hypothesis
symmetric male hypothesis
display evaluation
inbreeding avoidance

106

nuptial gift

males provide gift to female to solicit matings
females use resource characteristics to determine quality of male

107

examples of nuptial gift

hanging fly
thynnine wasp
song birds

108

hanging fly

larger prey (gift) = more sperm transferred (longer copulation)
sperm is stored in female, she chooses which to use later

109

Thynnine wasp

female doesn't fly, releases scent to winged males
males ability to carry female to multiple flowers increases probability of male mating

110

songbirds (nuptial gift)

gift to female is safe territory for foraging/breeding
male evaluated based on length and complexity of song- correlated with territory size (physically demanding)

111

examples of Dominant/strong male in sexual selection

ram
elephant seal
damselfly/dragonfly

112

damselflys dominant sexual selection acts

males engage in aerial combat over pond
winners do the mating
female increases genetic quality of offspring by mating with winner

113

handicapped male hypothesis

expression of costly elaborate display by males provide female the greatest information on genetic quality of male
"honest signal" of fitness, low possibility of cheating
male survives despite handicap

114

example of handicapped male hypothesis

peacock
widowbird

115

widowbird handicap

male tail is longer than body, reduces flight, feeding ability, predator evasion

116

elephant seal dominant sexual selection act

fight for female attraction
only the winner mates with females for the year

117

results of widowbird study (handicapped male hypothesis)

lengthened tail of bird- was much more successful reproductively

118

parasite free male hypothesis

differing susceptibility to disease can lead to mortality in young, males without parasite = better immunological genes- improved physiological ability, immunocompetence heritable

119

bright displays- parasite free male hypothesis

bright displays are physiologically costly to produce
parasitized birds can't produce as bright of colours
if females choose these males- provide offspring with genes more resistant to disease

120

proof parasitized birds can't produce as bright of colours?

removal of lice-- birds moult--- new coat is brighter