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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (485)
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211

Warbler migration

south in winter for food (no insects in north in winter)
north in spring- easier to raise children in north (less competition)

212

monarch butterfly migration

migration is multi generational (4 generations for round trip)
adults mate and leave mt.s in mexico in feb, lay eggs on milkweed, die, eggs hatch feed on milkweed, adults migrate north

213

monarch butterfly eggs hatch in

4 days

214

monarch pupation to chrysalis

10 days

215

monarch generations 1-3

adult 2-6 week migration

216

monarch generation 4

south migration, adult 6-8 months

217

why milkweed

cardiac glycoside, caterpillar puts toxin in its skin

218

density

individuals per unit area/volume

219

estimating absolute density

total counts (photographic)
quadrat sampling
mark, release, recapture estimates

220

Peterson/Lincoln index for mark, release, recapture

N = Mn / m

221

variable in Peterson/Lincoln index

N- population size
M- number of marked individuals
n- number of individuals in sample
m- number of marked individuals in sample

222

confidence intervals in mark recapture

sampling must be repeated to obtain decent confidence interval

223

problems with mark recapture

50% of released steelheads die of stress
birds target butterflies marked on wings
polar bears marked with paint couldn't capture prey

224

assumptions for reliable population estimates in mark recapture

population is largely constant over duration of studies
marked individuals have same chance of getting caught
marked individuals do not incur greater mortality
marks are not lost

225

population is largely constant over duration of mark recapture studies

no immigration, emigration, births, deaths
only possible in short time frame

226

marked individuals have same chance of getting caught

assumption of equal catchability

227

marked individuals do not incur greater mortality

stress-related mortality
mark-associated mortality

228

problems with flipper bands on penguins

banded birds had 16% lower survival, 39% fewer chicks

229

non-invasive methods of evaluating density

genotyping / genetic fingerprinting
hair, feathers, faeces, scales, identify individual genotypes

230

Estimating future population

N_t+1 = N_t + B + I - D - E

231

variables of future population equation

N_t+1 - individuals in pop. at t+1 year or generation
N_t - individuals in pop at time t
B- births
D- deaths
I- immigration
E- emmigration

232

B - births

natality, number of individuals produced
fecundity / fertility

233

fecundity

ecological concept, number of offspring produced

234

fertility

physiological concept, females ability to produce offspring per unit period of time

235

PPP

primary population parameters
B D I E

236

demography

statistical study of human populations

237

life tables useful for

estimating mortality rate, survival rates, survivorship curves, average life expectance

238

types of life tables

age specific
time specific

239

cohort analysis

age-specific- group of individuals of same age class
follow specific cohort from birth to death
most useful on short lived species

240

cohort

group of animals of same species, identified by common characteristic, studied over time as part of scientific/medical investigation