EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 1 - WATER RESCUE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 1 - WATER RESCUE Deck (29):
0

TRUE/FALSE

It should be emphasized that any entry into the water or onto ice be considered as a last resort. The safety of our members is paramount.

TRUE

1

TRUE/FALSE

The Cold Water Suit (CWS) and Personal Flotation Device (PFD) are designed for underwater operations.

FALSE

2.3 The Cold Water Suit (CWS) and Personal Flotation Device (PFD) are not designed for underwater operations.

2

L137 IS A WATER RESCUE UNIT, AS A COVERING OFFICER OFFICER YOU NOTICE ON THEIR POSITIONS BLACKBOARD NEXT TO THE IRONS FF IT READS: IRONS/PRIMARY WATER RESCUER. DO YOU AGREE WITH L137 ASSIGNING THIS POSITION TO A EVERYDAY POSITION LIKE THE IRONS?

NO

3.1 A member who has been trained in the suit and is familiar with its capabilities and limitations should be designated as the Primary Rescuer. A member with lifeguard experience or a trained scuba diver should be considered for this assignment.

3.2 It would not be good practice to assign your primary water rescuer as a riding position. Example, nozzle firefighter is always the primary rescuer. This member may not feel comfortable in the water and you may have someone with more training for that duty. Positions should be discussed and determined at roll call.

3

WHAT IS THE PRIMARY CONCERN IN WATER RESCUE OPERATIONS?

•SAFETY OF OUR MEMBERS

4.1 The primary concern is the safety of our rescuers. 10% of drowning victims are would-be rescuers. All members must use extreme caution and good judgment with any ice or water rescue.

4

THERE WILL BE TIMES WHEN WE SHOULD NOT ENTER THE WATER, WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THA PRECLUDE US FROM ENTERING?

•WATER/WEATHER CONDITIONS
•LOCATION OF VICTIM
•SKILL OF RESCUER
•NIGHT TIME OPS

4.2 There will be times when we should not enter the water. This goes for drill as well as a rescue situation. Some factors that would affect this decision are:

4.2.1 Water/weather conditions – factors such as wave height, presence of riptides or sweep tides and lightning storms.

4.2.2 Location of Victim- how far out the victim is and if they can be reached safely.

4.2.3 Skill level of rescuer - can the rescuer reach the victim under the above circumstances or will the rescuer eventually become a victim.

4.2.4 Night operations - Members should not be allowed past the line of sight from the shore. Portable lights should be brought to the scene.

5

TRUE/FALSE

DURING NIGHTTIME WATER/ICE RSCUE OPS OUR MEMBERS SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO ENTER THE WATER PAST LINE OF SIGHT AT THE SHORE.

TRUE

4.2 There will be times when we should not enter the water. This goes for drill as well as a rescue situation. Some factors that would affect this decision are:

4.2.1 Water/weather conditions – factors such as wave height, presence of riptides or sweep tides and lightning storms.

4.2.2 Location of Victim- how far out the victim is and if they can be reached safely.

4.2.3 Skill level of rescuer - can the rescuer reach the victim under the above circumstances or will the rescuer eventually become a victim.

4.2.4 Night operations - Members should not be allowed past the line of sight from the shore. Portable lights should be brought to the scene.

6

TRUE/FALSE

BUNKER GEAR FLOATS.

FALSE

BUNKER GEAR DOES NOT FLOAT

7

A PERSON SUFFERING FROM COLD WATER EXPOSURE WILL HAVE SYMPTOMS INCLUDING INTENSE SHIVERING, MENTAL CONFUSION, LOW PULSE RATE, IRREGULAR HEART BEAT & FIXED DILATED PUPILS. THE PERSON MAY HAVE CYANOTIC SKIN, WHICH WILL BE THIS COLOR?

•COLD/BLUE SKIN

5.1.1 Cold water exposure symptoms include intense shivering, loss of coordination, mental confusion, cyanotic (cold/blue) skin, low pulse rate; irregular heart beat and fixed dilated pupils.

8

WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF COLD WATER EXPOSURE?

•INTENSE SHIVERING
•LOSS OF COORDINATION
•CYANOTIC SKIN (COLD/BLUE)
•MENTAL CONFUSION
•LOW PULSE RATE
•IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
•FIXED DILATED PUPILS

5.1.1 Cold water exposure symptoms include intense shivering, loss of coordination, mental confusion, cyanotic (cold/blue) skin, low pulse rate; irregular heart beat and fixed dilated pupils.

9

E265 RETRIEVES A MAN FROM 92ND STREET SURF ON A COLD DECEMBER DAY. THE MAN HAS COLD BLUE SKIN, THE MEMBERS DEDUCE THAT HE IS SUFFERING FROM COLD WATER EXPOSURE. WHAT ARE THE WAYS TO TREAT THIS PATIENT UNTIL THE ARRIVAL OF EMS?

•REMOVE VICTIM TO A WARM SHELTER
•DO NOT MASSAGE OR RUB THE VICTIM—COULD CAUSE CARDIAC ARREST
•REMOVE WET CLOTHING & WRAP IN WARM BLANKETS

5.1.2 Remove the victim to a warm shelter to prevent further body cooling. The victim should be transported carefully to avoid heart fibrillation and stress. Do not massage or rub the victim because rough handling could cause cardiac arrest.

5.1.3 Remove wet clothing and wrap the person in warm blankets. Perform a patient assessment and treat the patient according to CFR protocols, if EMS is not on-scene.

10

HOW MANY TIMES FASTER DOES THE LOSS OF BODY HEAT OCCUR IN COLD WATER THAN IN AIR?

•25X

5.2.1 The loss of body heat occurs 25 times faster in cold water than in air. Hypothermia (subnormal body temperature) begins when the body's core (brain, spinal chord, lungs and vital organs) temperature falls below the level of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold water cools the body's skin and outer tissues very quickly. In approximately 7 to 15 minutes, core body temperature begins to drop significantly, affecting utilization of the arms and legs. Blood pressure, pulse and respiration rates all decrease. Muscles tense and shiver. Irrational behavior (resisting help) is a good indicator of hypothermia.

11

WHAT IS A GOOD INDICATOR OF HYPOTHERMIA?

•IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOR

5.2.1 The loss of body heat occurs 25 times faster in cold water than in air. Hypothermia (subnormal body temperature) begins when the body's core (brain, spinal chord, lungs and vital organs) temperature falls below the level of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold water cools the body's skin and outer tissues very quickly. In approximately 7 to 15 minutes, core body temperature begins to drop significantly, affecting utilization of the arms and legs. Blood pressure, pulse and respiration rates all decrease. Muscles tense and shiver. Irrational behavior (resisting help) is a good indicator of hypothermia.

12

WHEN THE BODY'S CORE TEMPERATURE DROPS BELOW _____ DEGREES F, THE VICTIM TRANSGRESSES FROM NON AMBULATORY TO UNCONSCIOUS.

•90 DEGREES F

5.2.2 When the body's core temperature begins to drop below 90 degrees Fahrenheit, the victim transgresses from non-ambulatory into unconsciousness. Low core temperature, in conjunction with stress and shock, can cause cardiac and respiratory failure.

13

IN WHAT WATER TEMPERATURE CAN MAMMALIAN DIVE REFLEX OCCUR?

•BELOW 70 DEGREES F.

5.3.1 There are a considerable number of authenticated cases of drowning victims who were submerged in cold water for 30 to 60 minutes and then resuscitated with no brain damage or other serious health effects. Sudden face contact with cold water (below 70 degrees Fahrenheit) initiates a body reflex known as the Mammalian Diving Reflex (MDR).

14

IF EXPOSED TO COLD WATER, IN WHAT AMOUNT OF TIME WILL CORE BODY TEMPERATURE BEGIN TO DROP AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF ARMS AND LEGS?

•7 TO 15 MINS

5.2.1 The loss of body heat occurs 25 times faster in cold water than in air. Hypothermia (subnormal body temperature) begins when the body's core (brain, spinal chord, lungs and vital organs) temperature falls below the level of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold water cools the body's skin and outer tissues very quickly. In approximately 7 to 15 minutes, core body temperature begins to drop significantly, affecting utilization of the arms and legs. Blood pressure, pulse and respiration rates all decrease. Muscles tense and shiver. Irrational behavior (resisting help) is a good indicator of hypothermia.

15

HOW MANY TIDES ARE THERE INA 24 HOUR PERIOD?

4

6.1 There are 4 tides in 24 hours: 2 tides are coming in (High) and 2 are going out (Low). Slack tide is 45 minutes between High and Low tides.

16

WHEN DOES SLACK TIDE OCCUR?

•45 MINS BETWEEN HIGH & LOW TIDES

6.1 There are 4 tides in 24 hours: 2 tides are coming in (High) and 2 are going out (Low). Slack tide is 45 minutes between High and Low tides.

17

WHAT IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF SWIMMERS IN DISTRESS?

RIP CURRENTS

6.2 Rip Tides or Currents - occur when the tide is going out. Rip currents are the primary source of distress in drowning victims. Rip currents pull people into deep water very quickly. This causes the victim to panic which is the leading cause of drowning.

18

WHEN DO RIP CURRENTS OCCUR?

•WHEN TIDE IS GOING OUT

6.2 Rip Tides or Currents - occur when the tide is going out. Rip currents are the primary source of distress in drowning victims. Rip currents pull people into deep water very quickly. This causes the victim to panic which is the leading cause of drowning.

19

WHEN ARE SWEEP TIDES MORE PRONOUNCED?

•OUT-GOING TIDES

6.3.1 Sweep Tides can also be present in a rescue situation. This tide runs parallel to the beach. It is more pronounced on out-going tides. The waves are diagonal to the beach and can sweep swimmers into a rip current.

20

L121 OBSERVES A SWIMMER IN DISTRESS ON BEACH 40TH STREET. THE LT. NOTICES A SWEEP TIDE OCCURRING-THE TIDE IS RUNNING PARALLEL TO THE BEACH. WHERE SHOULD HE INSTRUCT HIS RESCUER TO ENTER THE WATER?

•UPSTREAM OF THE SWEEP

6.3.2 Rescuer should enter the water upstream of the sweep. This will pull the rescuer towards the victim.

21

TRUE/FALSE

INFLATABLE RESCUE HOSE MAY BE USED DURING ICE AND WATER RESCUES INVOLVING ANY NUMBER OF UNCONSCIOUS VICTIMS.

FALSE

1.1 Inflatable water rescue hose may be used during ice and water rescue incidents/emergencies involving any number of conscious victims

22

WHAT ARE THE 3 AIR SUPPLIES FOR INFLATABLE RESCUE HOSE?

•SCBA
•FAST PAK
•APPARATUS AIR OUTLET

23

TRUE/FALSE

TO FILL THE INFLATABLE HOSE WITH AN SCBA OR FAST PAK, MEMBERS SHOULD ATTACH THE UAC TO THE MALE HOSE COUPLING.

FALSE

3.2 To fill the hose using a SCBA or Fast-Pak, members shall disconnect the low pressure hose at the Hansen fitting (Photo 3). Attach air hose to male plug of hose fitting (Photo 4). Inflate the hose until it is completely filled and possesses rigidity similar to charged hose line. One 45 minute cylinder can fill five lengths of 2 1/2” hose in approximately 2 minutes and 30 seconds.

24

A 45 MIN SCBA CYLINDER WILL FILL UP 5 LENGTHS OF 2 1/2" HOSE IN HOW MUCH TIME?

2 MINS 30 SECONDS

3.2 To fill the hose using a SCBA or Fast-Pak, members shall disconnect the low pressure hose at the Hansen fitting (Photo 3). Attach air hose to male plug of hose fitting (Photo 4). Inflate the hose until it is completely filled and possesses rigidity similar to charged hose line. One 45 minute cylinder can fill five lengths of 2 1/2” hose in approximately 2 minutes and 30 seconds.

25

TRUE/FALSE

A MEMBER LOOKING TO FILL UP 2 1/2" HOSE FROM THE APPARATUS TO USE AS INFLATABLE RESCUE HOSE WOULD HOOK THE MALE END OF THE COUPLING DIRECTLY UP TO THE APPARATUS AIR OUTLET.

TRUE

3.3 To fill the hose using the apparatus air outlet, members shall connect the male plug from hose directly to the air outlet on apparatus. The apparatus air outlet can fill two lengths of hose in approximately 20 seconds (Photo 5).

26

HOW QUICKLY WILL APPARATUS AIR OUTLET FILL UP TWO LENGTHS OF 2 1/2" HOSE?

20 SECONDS

3.3 To fill the hose using the apparatus air outlet, members shall connect the male plug from hose directly to the air outlet on apparatus. The apparatus air outlet can fill two lengths of hose in approximately 20 seconds (Photo 5).

27

DEPLOYMENT OF THE INFLATABLE RESCUE HOSE CAN BE EITHER IN A STRAIGHT LINE OR LOOP. WHICH CONFIGURATION INCREASES BUOYANCY?

LOOP

4.1 Inflatable water rescue hose can be deployed in either a straight line or loop. Straight line deployment can be used in incidents from a pier or shore involving only a few individuals who are close to shore. The loop deployment increases buoyancy and can be used for multiple victims.

28

HOW MANY PEOPLE CAN EACH 2 1/2" HOSE, BEING USED AS INFLATABLE HOSE FOR A WATER RESCUE, KEEP AFLOAT?

10 PEOPLE

4.2 More than two lengths of hose can be used for larger operations. Each length of 2 ½” hose filled with air can keep afloat approximately 10 people.

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