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TRAINING BULLETINS - SEARCH

What is flow path?

The movement of heat and smoke from the higher air pressure within the fire area to all other lower air pressure areas both inside and outside of a fire building.

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What is HRR?

Heat Release Rate (HRR)

The rate at which energy (heat) is released by the burning of a fuel and oxygen mixture.

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In ventilation limited fires, Hydrocarbon based products burn at __________ the rate as ordinary combustibles and generate __________ times the smoke production as ordinary combustibles.

Hydrocarbon based products burn at TWICE the rate as ordinary combustibles and generate FOUR TO TEN times the smoke production as ordinary combustibles.

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What is ventilation profile?

The appearance of the fire building's ventilation points showing the flow paths of heat and smoke out of the structure as well as any air movement into the structure.

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TRUE/FALSE

Members operating on the outside only need to communicate the ventilation profile upon arrival at a fire.

FALSE

**Members operating outside must continually report on the fires ventilation profile to increase the situational awareness of all members until the fire is under control.**

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Who coordinates and approves all ventilation?

All ventilation must be coordinated and approved by the Officer of the interior search team.

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What is ventilation for extinguishment?

Ventilation point (removing a window) is made to the fire area as the engine commences applying water into the fire area.

- opened window is an exhaust ventilation point and potential flow path for the higher air pressure from the fire area.

- vent points (windows) should be in close proximity to the seat of the fire.

- windows should be opposite the operating hoseline, which will allow a flow path for steam, heat and smoke to exit the structure ahead of the nozzle team.

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What is venting for life?

Horizontal ventilation point is made in an attempt to reach a known or suspected victim.

- ventilation conducted without applying water to the fire will create flow paths toward the ventilation opening.

- any ventilation point will allow the fire to grow if water is not being applied simultaneously.

- all ventilation must be coordinated and approved by the Officer of the interior search team.

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The company officer must consider the need for horizontal ventilation based on:

Are doors in the fire area controlled?

What is the development stage of the fire?

Is there a charged hoseline moving in on the fire?

Will the interior search of the area be delayed or prevented?

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Horizontal ventilation in the fire area should not occur until __________ or ___________.

Horizontal ventilation in the fire area shall not occur until a CHARGED HOSELINE IS IN POSITION AND OPERATING ON THE FIRE , or APPROVAL IS GIVEN BY THE LADDER COMPANY OFFICER IN THE AREA OR APTARTMENT.

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As part of their size-up, members of the outside team must report wind conditions and its affect on the fire and smoke conditions to _________________.

THEIR OFFICER AND THE INCIDENT COMMANDER

As part of their size-up, members of the outside team must report wind conditions and its affect on the fire and smoke conditions to THEIR OFFICER AND THE INCIDENT COMMANDER

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TRUE/FALSE

It is important for an engine company to realize that a properly positioned hoseline will contain the fire, possibly saving civilian lives and protecting firefighters who are searching both the fire floor and the floors above.
Only in extreme cases should an engine company become involved in search and rescue without simultaneously stretching and positioning a hoseline.

TRUE

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Who does the 1st due ladder company officer communicate the location of the fire to?

Engine company officer and the incident commander

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The 1st arriving ladder company's priorities are:

 Locate the fire area.

 Control the door to the apartment or area, and any other ventilation points.

 Communicate the fire location to the Engine Officer and the IC.

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TRUE/FALSE

A secondary search shall be completed during any extensive overhauling of the fire area.


FALSE

A secondary search shall be completed BEFORE any extensive overhauling of the fire area is attempted.

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Who gets notified if the primary or secondary search is delayed for any reason?

The incident commander

**If the Primary or Secondary search is delayed or not completed for any reason, the IC must be immediately notified.**

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Ladder company officer is responsible for maintaining search team integrity, how is the inside team search controlled?

The interior team search is controlled by immediate supervision via verbal communication and the use of the Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC).

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Ladder company officer is responsible for maintaining search team integrity, how is the outside team search controlled?

The exterior team is supervised through functional supervision by tracking the member's progress via handie-talkie reports.

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There are different methods to searching the fire floor and the floor above, what are they?

- The method for searching the fire area or apartment is to first locate, contain and isolate the fire and then begin the search for life from this point.

- The method when searching areas adjacent to or above the fire area, is to start the search for life upon entering the area

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The search rope should be used __________ or when __________.

The search rope method should be used in commercial occupancies or when deemed necessary by the unit Officer.

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Prior to forcing the fire door, the ladder company officer should consider:

Is there a report of a life hazard?
Are interior conditions tenable to sustain life or to conduct a search for life?
Are all members in proper PPE?
What is the location and status of the charged hoseline?
Who is the member to remain at the door if the interior search is to be conducted without an operating hoseline in place?
What will be your area of refuge, if needed?

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Fire is wrapping around the door jamb as your inside team is forcing the door, a good officer would?

- make sure a line is in place before the door is opened

- contact the exterior team for their exterior size up

**If fire is wrapping around the door jamb as the door is being forced open, a hoseline must be charged and in place at the door before the door is opened. This may also indicate that a window has failed and that wind is forcing the fire toward the occupancy entry door. The Company Officer shall contact the exterior team for their size-up if it has not been communicated. Evaluate the interior and exterior size-up and determine if an alternate means of attack and access to the fire area is necessary.**

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What is the determining factor on whether the door remains open or closed while searches are being conducted?

The determining factor is whether or not the engine company has a charged hoseline and is ready to advance into the fire area/occupancy.

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If the engine has a charged hoseline, the door to the fire area will be __________.

If the engine has a charged hoseline, the door to the fire area will be LEFT OPEN.

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If the engine does not have a charged hoseline ready to enter the fire area, the door should be closed after the search team enters, what must the ladder company officer do?

- communicate the identity of the apartment to the engine officer and the incident commander

- leave a member inside the door to maintain control of door until hoseline is in position

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What tool does the interior team leave outside the doorway to indicate the apartment they are searching?

The hydraulic forcible entry tool.

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The ladder company member positioned inside the door shall:

Maintain control of the apartment door to control the flow paths

Make sure the door doesn't lock behind the interior team

Monitor conditions in the immediate entrance area

Monitor handie-talkie transmissions to maintain situational awareness

Act as a beacon

If members are forced to evacuate, account for the interior team and close the door after all members have exited the apartment.

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TRUE/FALSE

Once the engine company has reached the door with a charged hoseline (search team has closed the door and is conducting a interior primary search) that hoseline is advance into apartment to extinguish fire.

FALSE

**Once the engine company reaches the apartment door with a charged hoseline, the Engine Officer must notify the Ladder Company Officer of their readiness to enter the apartment and that the apartment door will be opened. The door should not be opened until the Ladder Company Officer acknowledges and approves.**

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The officer going to the floor above the fire should conduct a thorough size up of the conditions on the fire floor:

- location of fire?

- control of door to fire area?

- charged hoseline on fire floor?

- hoseline advancing into fire area?

- water problems?

- is there a need for a hoseline on the floor above?

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The means of access to the floor above are:

- interior stairs

- fire escapes

- ladders (portable, aerial, tower)

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Upon reaching the floor above, what must the officer consider doing?

Forcing a door to an apartment other than the one directly over the fire apartment to provide an area of refuge.

**area of refuge is to be made, ensure that the door is closed and unlocked, so as not to create an additional flow path for smoke, heat and fire.**

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If there is any indication of a delay in putting water on an uncontrolled fire, all members operating above the fire should?

If there is any indication of a delay in putting water on an UNCONTROLLED FIRE, all members operating above the fire SHOULD SEEK REFUGE BY RETURNING TO THE FIRE FLOOR OR FLOOR BELOW.

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TRUE/FALSE

Searching for fire extension is not a valid reason to remain above an uncontrolled fire.

TRUE

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What must be carried and used by all ladder company officers at all structural responses?

Thermal imaging camera (TIC)

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The preferential order of removal of victims is:

Interior stairs

Horizontal exits

Fire escapes

Ladders

Life saving rope

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Members must communicate that they have located a victim by transmitting signal __________, the location of the victim and if assistance is needed.

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