Endocrine Path Quiz 3- pat 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Path Quiz 3- pat 2 Deck (28):
1

the condition that most commonly causes hypothyroid in US?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

2

endemic goiter is a term to describe

an enlarged thyroid due to inadequate intake of iodine (not a problem in most developed countries)

3

what is the term for accidental ingestion of excess quantities of thyroid hormone?

thyrotoxicosis factitia

4

Hashimoto's may present with

enlargement of the thyroid due to lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis

5

what causes gradual destruction of follicles in the thyroid gland?

antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (anti TPO Ab) and/or thyroglobulin

6

microscopic appearance of thyroid tissue in Hashimoto's

-can see movement away from single layer of epithelium
-colloid is no longer acellular, with lymphocytic infiltration

7

A Hürthle cell is associated with? appear how?

- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- enlarged epithelial cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm

8

what are the antibodies against thyroid peroxidase called?

antimicrosomal Ab

9

De Quervain's thyroiditis (a type of subacute thyroiditis) presents with which notable sx?

-granulomas
-painful enlarged thyroid

10

microscopically de Quervain's disease shows which type of cells?

multi-nucleated giant cells within the colloid

11

represents the most common cause for an enlarged thyroid gland, and world-wide, it represents the most common disease of the thyroid

Non-toxic multinodular goiter

12

Microscopic appearance of non-toxic multinodular goiter

-irregularly enlarged follicles
-flattened epithelium

13

A toxic nodular goiter (TNG) is a thyroid gland that contains autonomously functioning thyroid nodules, resulting in

hyperthyroidism (excess T3/T4)

14

Toxic nodular goiter
aka:
characteristics of goiter:
Dissimilar from which condition:

-Plummer's disease
-Off to one side, elderly
-Grave's is symmetrical, adolescence

15

microscopic appearance of toxic nodular goiter

-hypercellularity
-normal looking cells

16

Grave's disease
etiology

-an AI disease
-long acting thyroid autoantibodies (LATS-Ab) activate TSH receptors
-stimulate production of T3/T4
-enlarged goiter

17

most common cause of hyperthyroidism in US

Grave's

18

most common cause of hyperthyroidism worldwide?

iodine deficiency
(rare in US)

19

microscopic appearance of Grave's disease

-tall columnar thyroid epithelium
-vacuoles in the colloid (scalloping)
-depletion of colloid

20

most common type of thyroid cancer?

Papillary cancer (least malignant)

21

most malignant type of thyroid cancer?

Undifferentiated/Anaplastic (least common)

22

When is papillary carcinoma more malignant (ordinarily very responsive to treatment)?

when diagnosed in elderly

23

psammoma body seen in

papillary carcinoma

24

if papillary carcinoma were to METS, would it do so via lymph or blood?

lymph

25

second most common thyroid cancer?

follicular carcinoma
more malignant than papillary carcinoma

26

microscopic appearance of follicular carcinoma

encapsulated
well-defined follicles
*can be hard to distinguish from follicular adenoma

27

which thyroid cancer shows proliferation of parafollicular cells (C cells) which results in excess amounts of?

-medullary carcinoma
-calcitonin (detectable in serum)

28

microscopic appearance of medullary carcinoma?

-pink hyaline material
-amyloid stroma