CNS Path Quiz 6 part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CNS Path Quiz 6 part 3 Deck (38):
1

loss of intellectual function to the degree that it interferes with ADL is termed

dementia
(short term memory loss alone is not enough to be considered dementia)

2

when might dementia be considered reversible? irreversible?

-reversible when caused by: infxn, drugs, alcohol, metabolic imbalances, hormone imbalances, depression
-irreversible when caused by: injury to the brain, disease

3

what is THE most common cause of dementia?

Alzheimer's

4

most common form of Alzheimer's disease?

late-onset Alzheimer's disease

5

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease associated with mutations in genes located on which chromosomes?

1, 14, and 21

6

Early-onset Alzheimer's in half of all relatives before the age of 50 is another type of Alzheimer's disease called?

Familial Alzheimer's disease

7

what are the characteristic abnormalities found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease?

-Amyloid plaques
-Neurofibrillary tangles

8

Neurofibrillary tangles are found inside of neurons and consist of insoluble twisted fibers made of what?

tau protein

9

macroscopic brain findings of a patient with Alzheimer's disease

deepened sulci
diminished width of gyri
overall loss of mass

10

what type of dementia is characterized by micro-infarctions and areas of low blood flow causing damage to the brain?

vascular dementia (multi-infarct dementia)

11

macroscopic brain findings of a patient with multi-infarct dementia (vascular dementia)

multiple cystic infarcts in various locations

12

Cerebral atrophy seen in Pick's disease (clinically similar to AD) occurs where?

frontal and temporal lobes
"knife-like" in appearance

13

Parkinson’s disease primarily affects which parts of the brain?

the pigmented neuronal groups (substantia nigra and locus ceruleus)

14

macroscopic brain findings of a patient with Parkinson's disease

pale substantia nigra

15

Some patients with Parkinson's disease also have dementia. What is this dementia called?

-Lewy body dementia

16

what's the most common demyelinating disease?

Multiple sclerosis

17

pathophysiology of MS

-loss of myelin slows down nerve messaging
-plaques form over the affected area, further disrupting nerve communication

18

while there are no definitive diagnostic test for MS. what tests can be done and what are their findings?

-MRI w/ Gadolinium enhancement (can distinguish between old and new plaques)
-Lumbar puncture (elevated immune proteins)

19

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is due to infection by

the JC virus
(it's a demyelination disease)

20

a brain bx of a patient with Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) reveals

enlarged astrocytes

21

Central pontine myelinolysis caused by

overly rapid correction for hyponatremia

22

In children, majority of tumors are found where?

below the tentorium (in the posterior fossa)

23

In adults, majority of tumors are found where?

above the tentorium

24

most common brain tumor in children is

astrocytic tumors such as glioblastomas

25

most common brain tumor in adults is

metastatic tumors

26

meningiomas are

-benign adult tumors
-arise in the arachnoid

27

gliomas are

-malignant tumors of glial cells
-occur in the cerebral hemisphere of adults
-occur in brain stem and cerebellum of kids

28

Astrocytoma appears how microscopically?

They can be stellate, spindle-shaped with fiber like processes, or plump with a large eosinophilic cytoplasmic mass

29

the most malignant form of astrocytoma? occurs?

-Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)
-occurs in the frontal and temporal lobes

30

microscopic appearance of glioblastoma multiforme

high cellularity, cellular
anaplasia and nuclear anaplasia

31

Bifrontal butterfly S-shaped
lesion consistent with

glioblastoma multiforme

32

A butterfly lesion is a lesion which

infiltrates across the corpus callosum (allowing pathological process to spread from one hemisphere to another)

33

In cases of ependymomas found in the posterior fossa near the 4th ventricle, the development of what is common?

hydrocephalus

34

a ganglioma consists of

mature neurons

35

more often a neuronal tumor consists of mature neurons and glial cells called

ganglioglioma

36

The most common of the poorly differentiated brain tumors is the

medulloblastoma

37

microscopic appearance of medulloblastoma

individual tumor cells are small, ovoid or slightly elongated with high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio

38

on MRI, a mass in the cerebellar is consistent with which neuronal tumor?

medulloblastoma