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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (86):
1

molluscum contagiosum
lesion appearance?
how it's spread?
cause by?

characteristic lesion is pinpoint central umbilicus
spread via direct contact
caused by a DNA poxvirus

2

what are the histological findings of psoriasis?

marked hyperkeratosis
loss of granular layer
epidermal acanthosis and notable elongation of the rete ridges or pegs
vascular dilation

3

lichen simplex chronicus
histological findings?

scratch and itch cycle
thickened epidermis w leukocyte infiltration of the underlying dermis

4

widespread lichen simplex is often called what?

neurodermatitis

5

characteristic microscopic findings in lichen simplex chronicus are?

elongation, widening, and irregular thickening of rete ridges along with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and chronic inflammation in the dermis
*same as psoriasis

6

would want to avoid what topical treatment to avoid further damage in lichen planus?

cortisol cream
the skin is inflamed and ulcerated and cortisol cream would further irritate the area

7

what is the microscopic appearance of lichen planus?

saw-tooth appearance of the rete pegs

8

gross appearance of lichen sclerosus?

the vulva and peri-anal area appear pale or white in color

9

which lichen condition is associated with an increased risk for vulva cancer?

lichen sclerosus

10

microscopic findings of lichen sclerosus reveal what?

flattening of the rete pegs
acellular zone beneath the epidermis (dense collagenous fibrous tissue)

11

describe the microscopic appearance of each of the lichen conditions and psoriasis

lichen simplex chronicus- thickening of rete pegs
psoriais - elongation of rete pegs
lichen planus - saw tooth rete pegs
lichen sclerosus - flattening of rete pegs

12

bartholin's cyst usually related to what infection?

gonococcal infection

13

genital herpes
microscopic appearance

smears taken directly from the vesicle show characteristic multinucleated giant cells (due to abnormal division)

14

condyloma acuminata
aka
caused by

genital warts
HPV

15

HPV types __ and __ are responsible for 90% of all cases of genital warts

6, 11

16

which types of HPV cause the majority of cervical cancer?

16, 18

17

microscopic changes for condyloma acuminata?

acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cytoplasmic vacuolation

18

condyloma latum
underlying dz?
caused by?

underlying dz is syphilis
caused by treponema pallidum

19

treponema pallidum
morphology
gram neg or pos?
assoc with which condition?

morphology: spiral shaped gram neg highly mobile (flagellated) bacterium
assoc w: conyloma latum

20

chancre of syphilis painful or painless?

painless (hard to believe because it looks crazy painful gross)

21

compare BV, Trichomona and Candida in terms of odor and pH

BV and Trich have a high pH and a "fishy" odor while Candida doesn't have an odor and has a low pH

22

on wet mount the presence of ____ is characteristic for BV?

clue cells

23

what is the most common STI worldwide?

chlamydia trachomatis

24

characteristics of Neiserria gonorrhea

gran neg diplococci
causes gonorrhea

25

in vulva intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) the lesion may appear

variable in color
the plaques may be red, white, yellow, or multi-pigmented plaques

26

microscopic changes for condyloma acuminata?

marked thickening of epidermis (acanthosis) and cytoplasmic vacuolation

27

treponema pallidum
morphology
gram neg or pos?
assoc with which condition?

morphology: spiral shaped gram neg highly mobile (flagellated) bacterium
assoc w: condyloma latum

28

vulva intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)
microscopically

looks like cancer!
diffuse cellular atypia, nuclear crowding, and increased mitotic index

29

More than 90% of all cases of VIN and associated cancers are found to contain DNA of the high risk strains of

HPV 16, 18, 31, and 45 (majority of cases are 16)

this is the same as for HPV

30

Approximately 85% of vulvar cancers are

squamous cell carcinoma

31

Children with mother's who were treated with diestylbestrol (DES) during pregnancy show an increased incidence of what?

clear cell adenocarcinoma

32

Cervical cancer is directly tied to the presence of

HPV 16, 18, 31, and 45 (16 & 18 by far the most common)

33

what is the most recent classification of cervical cancer?

the Bethesda system
it has replaced the Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia classification (CIN)

Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (corresponds to CIN1) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (corresponds to CIN2/3)

34

term used to describe cellular changes in which cells nuclei are enlarged and often stain with a halo-like appearance.(nuclei stain darker)

koilocytosis

characteristic of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HPV infected cells.

35

what is the most common and most benign form of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (carcinoma in situ)?

CIN 1

36

infertility is common in women with endometriosis and is thought to be due to
it's also common in PID

scarring, adhesions, anatomical distortions of the involved ovary, Fallopian tubes or uterus.
Furthermore, inflammation due to endometriosis increases local release of cytokines that may interfere with conception, implantation or normal development of a fertilized ovum

37

endometrioma
aka
cause

chocolate cyst
ovarian cyst that is formed as a consequence of ectopic endometrial tissue that bleeds within the ovary

38

Adenomyosis generally refers to the presence of

ectopic endometrial tissue (glands and stroma) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus)
appearance of glands where there shouldn't be any

39

what's the most common underlying cause of endometritis (inflammation of uterus due to infxn)?

usually due to retained placental fragments or iatrogenic infection during delivery or as a consequence of infection that develops following an abortion.

40

acute endometritis is characterized by the presence of what?

micro-abscesses or neutrophils within the endometrial glands

41

chronic endometritis is characterized by the presence of what?

plasma cells (nuclei that are off to the side of the cell- eccentric)

42

what is the most characteristic and common component of PID?

infxn of the oviducts

43

although an _______ is the most common cause of PID, many other routes of infection are possible, including _________

STI
lymphatic or hematogenous spread, postpartum or post-abortion infections and infection related to the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD).

44

atypical hyperplasia often presents with atypical bleeding due to

an estrogen dominant environment

45

endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer. what type endometrial cancer is the most common?

adenocarcinoma

46

increased risk for developing endometrial cancer has been linked to:

nulliparity
obesity (peripheral conversion of estrogen)
DM (insulin has a GF like effect)
HTN

47

a far less common type of endometrial cancer than adenocarcinoma is

serous carcinoma of the ovary (papillary serious carcinoma)

48

microscopically papillary serous carcinoma is notable for

accumulation of nuclear p53 protein (aberrant p53)

49

leimomyomas,
aka
what are they

fibroids
benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus

50

Leiomyomas usually present as

discrete, well-circumscribed tumors that are often round, firm and when sectioned appear gray-white in color.

51

These cells have a characteristic

whorled pattern of smooth muscle

52

leiomyoma sarcoma and sarcomas in general have a characteristic cell shape

"spindle shaped", otherwise don't appear to be aberrant

53

Benign epithelial tumors of the ovary is called

serious cystadenoma of the ovary

54

more than 90% of ovarian cancer are classified as _____ and arise from the ______

epithelial, surface of the ovary

55

why is ovarian cancer so hard to dx and why is it considered aggressive?

sx are often absent in the early course of the dz and when they do occur they are subtle (constipation, abdominal bloating, pelvic pain, difficulty eating and frequent urination

56

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas may contain small calcifications which are referred to as

psammoma bodies.

57

cystic teratomas of the ovaries are a form of

ovarian germ cell tumor

58

When ovarian tertomas are mostly solid, they often contain less differentiated tissue. Such tumors are sometimes termed

"immature teratomas"

59

microscopically the teratoma has

cartilage and adipose tissue

60

most common birth defect of the male genitalia?

cryptorchidism (undescended testes)

61

2nd most common birth defect of the male genitalia?

hypospadias (urethral meatus on ventral side vs epispadias which is on dorsal side)

62

what's the difference between phimosis and paraphimosis?

phimosis - foreskin can't be retracted
paraphimosis - foreskin stuck in retracted position

63

an idiopathic (primary) varicocele is defined as?
a secondary varicocele caused by?

-when valves within the veins along the spermatic cord don't work properly
-compression of the vein causes engorgement (if just on R side, think mass! imaging!!!!)

64

what is the appropriate technique to dx a hydrocele?

transillumination (will light up. follow up with US)

65

what's the most common underlying cause of testicular torsion?
what will happen with transillumination?

-a congenital malformation called "bell clapper deformity" (the testis is inadequately affixed to the spermatic cord)
-it will be opaque

66

Gonococcal urethritis is caused by:
The bacteria in question looks like:

Neisseria gonorrhea
gran negative diplococci

67

what causes non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU)?
The bacteria in question looks like:

Chlamydia trachomatis
it's a gram negative obligate and with appropriate monoclonal staining you can see the inclusion bodies

68

reactive arthritis (Reither's syndrome) is characterized by what sx

arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urinary tract infections, or urethritis and fourth major feature, ulcerations of the mouth and the skin (often of the feet).

69

a Tzanck smear of herpes simplex virus will show

a multinucleated giant cell

70

The chancres of syphilis are likely to be?

painless chancres (hard to beleive because they look like gaping fucking wounds)

71

what causes primary syphilis?
this bacterium looks like?

treponema pallidum
spirochete

72

secondary syphilis characterized by what sort of lesion? what does it mean?

circular lesions, represents active spirochete infection

73

condyloma acuminata (aka genital warts) is caused by

HPV strains, primarily 6 & 11

74

primary testicular cancer is the most common ______ malignant tumor in men between the ages ______ and _______

solid
20-35

75

______ prevalence in penile cancers is high at about 40%
______ is accountable for 63% of prostate cancers

HPV, HPV 16

76

what is the most common type of testicular cancer?
what are the other types of testicular cancer?

Seminoma (germ cell tumor)
embryonal
teratoma
mixed type

77

Blood tests may detect the presence of ______ or ________ in someone who has a seminoma tumor

placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP)
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

78

microscopically seminoma tumor cells appear

Lobules of neoplastic cells have an intervening stroma with characteristic lymphoid infiltrates. The seminoma cells are large with vesicular nuclei and pale cytoplasm.

79

Blood tests may detect the presence of an elevation of______ and _______ in someone who has a embryonal carcinoma

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
alpha fetoprotein (AFP) - unique to this cancer

80

microscopically embryonal carcinoma appears

Sheets of cells are trying to form primitive tubules

81

a teratoma is an

encapsulated tumor

82

does benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) increase the risk of cancer?

Answer? NO! Although it does elevate PSA levels

83

microscopically benign prostatic hyperplasia appears

1) well-differentiated glands with tall columnar epithelial lining cells (normally there is one row of columnar cells and an outer layer of cuboidal to myoepithelial cells)

84

Approximately 95% of prostate cancer is found to be ________

adenocarcinoma

85

microscopically adenocarcinoma

greater density of glandular tissue
dissapearance of stoma

86

microscopically adenocarcinoma

greater density of glandular tissue
dissapearance of stroma