Renal Path Quiz 2- part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal Path Quiz 2- part 1 Deck (34):
1

hypoplastic kidney due to

renal artery occlusion

2

hypoplastic kidney is more prone to what?

pyelonephritis

3

horseshoe kidney involves the fusion of kidneys at what pole?

most often the lower pole

4

horseshoe kidney, (aka fused kidneys) “keep bad company”, what does this mean?

malformations are more likely in other organs due to chromosomal disorders

5

what's the most common location for an ectopic kidney?

lower abdomen or pelvis

6

what coupled with ectopic kidney is likely to produce urinary stasis? what might it result in?

-redundant ureter length -UTI

7

Simple renal cysts can be numerous but

they are never as numerous as PKD

they also don't predispose the individual to developing chronic renal failure or to neoplasia

8

polycystic kidney disease (PKD), both childhood and adult, can result in which condition?

renal insufficiency ultimately leading to renal failure

9

what does childhood PKD look like microscopically?

large cysts lined by flattened cuboidal epithelium and an intervening parenchyma that is fibrotic with islands of bluish cartilage

10

the adult form of PKD is often associated with what sequelae?

concurrent liver disease unlike childhood PKD

11

neither adult nor childhood PKD patients are at an increased risk for...?

renal cell carcinoma

12

what population IS at an increased risk for renal cell carcinoma?

dialysis patients WITH renal cysts

13

what do the cysts look like for a dialysis patient?

scattered small cysts, none of which is over 2 cm in size

14

glomerular disease is characteristic for what?

thickening of the basement membrane (impairs filtration to some degree)

15

what accounts for the thickening of the basement membrane?

deposition of immune complexes on the epithelial side of the membrane. often these antibody complexes are due to allergic rxns to drugs or autoimmune diseases

16

what's happening with nephrotic syndrome?

proteinuria (loss of protein in urine >3 gm)

decr. serum proteins (hypoalbuminemia)

incr. serum lipid levels

pitting edema

17

____ is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children?

lipoid nephrosis (aka minimal change disease)

18

what's lipoid nephrosis (aka minimal change disease)?

it's the loss of only albumin (selective proteinuria)

19

microscopically how does minimal change nephrotic syndrome appear?

there is minimal change from a healthy glomerulus, but perhaps with flattening of the foot processes (explains inability to retain albumin) no immune complexes are seen

20

what's the most common cause of adult nephrotic syndrome?

membranous glomerulopathy

21

what will membranous glomerulopathy look like microscopically?

thickened and prominent capillary loops, without increased cellularity

podocytes lose their foot processes 

22

most cases of membranous glomerulopathy are idiopathic, but can be caused by

infections:

Hep B/C

syphilis

malaria

Schistosomiasis

Drug rxn

Tumors

23

Membranous glomerulopathy is generally an immunologically mediated disease in which deposits of

IgG and/or IgM and complement in the basement membrane

24

what's the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in African-Americans?

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (aka focal sclerosis) appears to be idiopathic and immune complexes not always seen

25

those with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are prone to have ______ unlike minimal change nephrosis (aka ________)

-non-selective proteinuria

-liphoid nephrosis with selective protein lost (albuminuria)

26

post infectious glomerulonephritis caused by what?

autoimmune phenomenon following GAS (not a direct cause of strep!)

27

what does post-infectious glomerulonephritis look like microscopically?

hypercellular 

poorly defined capillary loops

28

Patients who have had a strep infection typically have an elevated

ASO titer

(anti-streptolysin O titer)

29

characteristic feature of rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis?

proliferation of the epithelial cells and formation of the fluorescent crescent

30

The first laboratory abnormality in diabetic nephropathy is

microalbuminuria

31

Nodular glomerulosclerosis related to diabetes is referred to as

Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease (build up of proteinatious material)

32

______ accumulates within glomerular capillary loops in a patient with Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease of D.M

hyaline material

33

what's the most common reason for someone on dialysis?

diabetic kidney dz

34

electron microscopy of patients with amyloidosis reveals the characteristic presence of

fibrils within the amyloid deposits perpendicular to basement membrane