Central Nervous System Path Quiz 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Central Nervous System Path Quiz 5 Deck (31):
1

Ancephaly

absence of brain formation

2

Microcephaly

diminished brain size

3

Agyri

absence of gyri

4

Polymicrogyri

increased number of smaller than normal, shallow gyri

5

Macrogyri/pachygyri

enlarged abnormal gyri

6

Hydrocephalus

build up of too much CSF in brain
due to incr production, blockage, or reabsorption

7

most common cause of hydrocephalus?

blockage

8

why do babies with hydrocephalus have heads that become massive?

because fontanelles allow expansion of growth plates

9

Spina bifida is

failure of normal closure of the vertebral column and/or overlying skin on dorsal aspect of spinal cord

10

Spina bifida occulta

refers to a condition of a missing portion of a posterior vertebral body.

11

Meningocele

refers to herniation of the meninges but not the cord

12

Menigomyelocele

is the herniation of the meninges and the spinal cord

13

abnormally elevated levels of which protein is associated with neural tube defects (spina bifida)?

maternal alpha fetal protein (Maternal AFP or MAFP)
tested in second trimester

14

maternal alpha fetal protein (MAFP) is seen in which conditions?

spina bifida
anencephaly
abdominal wall defects

15

cerebral palsy (a disorder of movement) is most likely to occur when?

during pregnancy
can also occur during childbirth, or after birth

16

by far the most common type of cerebral palsy is?

spastic cerebral palsy

17

The most common finding on autopsy of newborns and infants with cerebral palsy is

periventricular leukomalacia (necrosis around the ventricles)

18

The most common cause of meningitis is

viral infections

19

The second most common cause of meningitis is

bacterial infections
much more severe

20

where is the spinal needle usu inserted for lumbar puncture?

between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae

21

the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children?

neisseria meningitis
referred to as meningococcal meningitis

22

microscopic appearance of neisseria meningitidis

gram negative diplococci

23

In Meningococcal meningitis, a rapidly-spreading rash may precede other sx. whats the rash called?

petechial rash

24

aseptic meningitis associated with increased WBCs, esp lymphocytes should make you think

viral meningitis!

25

which two enteroviruses account for 50% of aseptic menintitis

coxsackie virus
echovirus

26

the most common cause of viral meningitis/encephalitis in children and adults?

enteroviruses

27

Encephalitis due to HSV infection characteristically involves which parts of the brain?

temporal lobes

28

whats the most common organism found in brain abscesses?

streptococcus

29

a brain abscess will appear how on imaging?

walled off calcified area

30

Neurocysticercosis is caused by

eating pork infected with tape worm larvae

31

Neurocysticercosis looks how on imaging?

multiple abscesses in brain