Endocrine Path Quiz 3- part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Path Quiz 3- part 3 Deck (16):
1

parathyroid glands is controlled by the level of

free (ionized) calcium in bloodstream

2

decreased serum levels of free calcium stimulate the synthesis and secretion of

PTH

3

function of PTH

PTH tells kidneys to absorb more calcium from diet, and body to elaborate more of active Vitamin D

4

PTH and calcitonin act inversely, how?

PTH act to increase conc. of calcium in bloodstream
Calcitonin acts to decrease conc. of calcium

5

where is PTH made?

chief cells of parathyroid glands

6

where is calcitonin made?

parafollicular cells C cells

7

Sometimes these cells have a clear appearance due to large amounts of glycogen stored within the cell

Chief cells

8

most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

adenoma

9

other causes of primary hyperparathyroid?

primary hyperplasia
parathyroid carcinoma

10

microscopic view of parathyroid adenoma

hypercellularity
well encapsulated
little fat
tendency towards follicular formation

11

microscopic view of normal parathyroid

prominent adipose tissue

12

most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism?

renal failure
Less phosphate excreted in urine, resulting in hyperphosphatemia. The elevated serum phosphate levels directly depress serum calcium levels and thereby stimulate parathyroid gland activity.

13

microscopic changes seen in secondary hyperparathyroidism

same as adenoma (primary hyperparathyroidism)
loss of adipose
hypercellularity
but NOT encapsulated

14

microscopic view of parathyroid carcinoma

bands of fibrous tissue between nests of neoplastic cells

15

malignancy related to hypercalcemia most commonly due to

stem cell capacity of some cancer to make ectopic hormone called PTHrP (Parathyroid hormone-related protein) (resembles PTH)

16

PTHrP secreted by which types of cancer

most commonly lung
also breast and prostate