Renal Path Quiz 2- part 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal Path Quiz 2- part 4 Deck (26):
1

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones or renal calculi

2

4 main types of renal stones are:

calcium oxalate
triple phosphate
uric acid
cystine

3

which type of stones are most common?

calcium oxalate (75%)

4

the bacteria that cause UTI's are urea splitting which creates a higher pH allowing stones to precipitate out of solution. which type of renal stones are associated with UTIs?

triple phosphate (or magnesium ammonium phosphate)

5

what's another name of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones (aka triple phosphate)?

staghorn calculi
they are some of the largest stones

6

uric acid crystals can be seen in urine of patients with

gout
diseases involving rapid cell turnover (leukemias or with tumor lysis syndrome)

7

uric acid crystals form in what urine pH?

acidic environment, 5.5 or less

8

which stone forms in gout (MTP joint of big toe)?

uric acid

9

cystine stone are caused by?

genetic defects

10

multiple stone in a child are most likely which type of stones?

cystine stones

11

are benign or malignant renal tumors more common?

malignant tumors

12

what's the most common type of benign renal tumors?

renal adenoma

13

where are renal adenomas most often found? and what are they called?

-papilla
-renal papillary adenomas

14

how do renal papillary adenomas appear under microscope?

frond like (papillary actually means frond like)

15

oncocytoma is an uncommon type of adenoma with characteristic histological features of

uniform large polygonal cells
large nuclei
numerous mitochondria

16

what appearance do the mitochondria have in oncocytoma?

stacked appearance

17

what's the most common type of primary malignant renal tumor?

renal cell carcinoma
most common primary and most common malignant

18

what classic triad of sx suggests advanced disease in renal cell carcinoma?

flank pain
hematuria
palpable abdominal mass

19

what's the main risk factor for renal cell carcinoma?

tobacco
also exposure to toxic compounds

20

dialysis patients who develop renal cysts are at an increased risk for what?

renal cell carcinoma
other cysts in kidneys (simple cysts, adult or child PKD, or medullary sponge kidney) aren't at an increased risk

21

now that we know the most common malignant renal tumor is renal cell carcinoma, what's the most common type of renal cell carcinoma?

clear cell carcinoma (75-85%)

22

renal cell carcinoma is most often referred to as clear cell carcinoma due to the histological appearance of the cells. which is?

cells that have a clear cytoplasm
arranged in nests
with intervening blood vessels

23

clear cell carcinoma arises from which part of the glomerulus?

proximal tubules

24

what's the second most common primary malignant renal tumor?

transitional cell carcinoma

but the second most common malignancy is metastatic tumor

25

what's the most common primary renal tumor of childhood?

Wilm's tumor

26

what's the histological appearance of Wilm's tumor?

nests of primitive appearing cells