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Study Notes - Gastroenterology > *Ethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in *Ethics Deck (9)
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1

What is the legal age of capacity in Scotland?

16 (before this age though we should assess if the patient has capacity to make a decision or not)

2

What is ethics?

The study of what is morally right and what is morally wrong (critical approach, based on rational argument)

3

What are the 3 levels of medical ethics?

Laws (both written and case law)
Guidelines and recommendations (e.g. GMC guidance)
Ethics as ability to critically and morally reason (when there is no black and white correct answer - applying reasons to individual cases)

4

Deontology?

"Is the act right or wrong in itself?"
Respecting patient's right to make decisions - values of rationality, free will, autonomy, duty of care, dignity

5

Consequentialism (C)/ Utilitarianism (U)?

"What consequences will the act have?"
"Do the benefits outweigh the risks?"
C = whether some action is right or wrong depends upon consequences
U = act always to maximise the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people

6

Communitarianism/ community ethics?

Very similar to Utilitarianism
"Is the act good for everyone that be affected by the act?"
Social justice is an important value here

7

Virtue ethics?

"Am i being honest to myself and consistent in my acts?"

8

Religious theories?

"Does the act respect the sanctity of human life?"
This is quite difficult as different peoples believes in religion can be different

9

What are the 4 main medical principles according to Beauchamp and Childress?

Respect for autonomy (respecting the patient's capacity of free will and independent decision-making)
Beneficence (balancing of benefits of treatment against risks and costs - acting for the good of others)
Non-maleficence (avoiding causing harm)
Justice (fair distribution of benefits risks and costs, fair resource allocation, social justice)