*Intestinal Problems (lecture 7) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in *Intestinal Problems (lecture 7) Deck (24)
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1

What are the 2 types of bowel obstruction?

Mechanical
Adynamic (ileus)

2

What are the causes of small bowel obstruction?

Extrinsic compression (adhesions, hernias, volvulus)
Intramural (crohns)
Intraluminal (tumour, gallstones)
Ileus

3

Initial management of a small bowel obstruction?

ABC
Analgesia
IV fluids (with potassium)
NG tube (to decompress the stomach - ryles tube)
Catheter and urine output monitoring
Antithromboembolism treatment

4

What is "drip and suck"?

NG to decompress the stomach - "suck"
IV fluids - "drip"

5

What electrolyte imbalance do patients with small bowel obstruction tend to have?

Alkalosis
Hyokalaemia

6

What are the appropriate investigations for a small bowel obstruction?

AXR (to look for dilated small bowel loops)
CT

7

What type of obstructions do you always need to do surgery for?

Hernias

8

How long should you drip and suck for?

Up to 72 hours for adhesion however intervene earlier if strangulation, ischaemia, perforation

9

Surgical management of treatment of small bowel obstruction?

Laparotomy - can be done laparoscopically
Find the obstruction by following collapse or dilated bowel
Resect if necessary

10

How does ischaemic gut appear in comparison to the normal gut?

Darker

11

Symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischaemia?

"angina of the gut"
Cramps
Atherosclerosis
Loss weight as eating brings on the pain

12

Symptoms of acute mesenteric ischaemia?

Severe abdominal pain
Few abdominal signs
Rapid hypovolaemia

13

Investigations for acute mesenteric ischaemia?

Metabolic acidosis
May be increased Hb (due to loss of plasma)
WCC raised
May be a modestly raised amylase
Abdominal x-ray shows a gasses abdomen
Arteriography/ angiography
Many only diagnosed at laproscopy

14

How is acute mesenteric ischaemia treated?

resuscitation with fluids
Metronidzole and gentamicin
Heparin
Thrombolysis can be performed if reperfusionable
Dead bowel resected

15

Investigations for chronic mesenteric ischaemia?

CT angiography
MR angiography

16

Treatment of chronic mesenteric ischaemia?

Angioplasty and stent insertion

17

When does appendicitis tend to present?

Usually childhood/ young adulthood
Another peak in elderly population

18

What can happen in terms of the omentum in relation to appendicitis?

Presence of inflammation in the abdomen can bring the greater momentum over to cover it
The small bowe can adhere to this causing a phlegmonous mass

19

Signs of appendicitis?

Mild pyrexia (never a high temperature initially)
Mild tachycardia
Localised pain in RIF
Guarding
Rebound tenderness

20

What is Rosving's sign?

a sign of appendicitis. If palpation of the left lower quadrant of a person's abdomen increases the pain felt in the right lower quadrant, the patient is said to have a positive Rovsing's sign and may have appendicitis.

21

What is mesenteric adenitis?

Mesenteric adenitis means swollen (inflamed) lymph glands in the tummy (abdomen), which cause abdominal pain. It is not usually serious and usually gets better without treatment. Mesenteric adenitis is a fairly common cause of abdominal pain in children aged under 16 years. It is much less common in adults.

22

Investigations for acute appendicitis?

Blood test may reveal high neutrophil levels and high CRP
USS may help
CT
AXR to exclude other causes

23

Management of acute appendicitis?

Prompt appendectomy
Antibiotics
Analgesia
Antipyretics

24

Management of mass on the appendix (due to acute appendicitis)?

Antibiotics fir line
Take to theatre if worsen