*Physiology 2 Flashcards Preview

Study Notes - Gastroenterology > *Physiology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in *Physiology 2 Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...
1

Where are the parotid glands located?

Anterior to the ear below the zygomatic arch

2

What duct carries saliva from the parotid gland to the mouth and where does it connect with the mouth?

Duct of stensen
Enters mouth opposite second maxillary molar teeth

3

Where are the submandibular glands located?

Medial to the body of the mandible

4

What duct carried saliva from the submandibular glad to the mouth and where does it enter the mouth?

Duct of Wharton
Enters the mouth under the tongue by lingula frenulum via sublingual caruncula

5

Where is the sublingual gland located?

Medial to the submandibular glands

6

What duct arises from the sublingual glands and where does it connect to?

Ducts of Rivinus/ common Bartholin
Connects with Wharton's duct at the sublingual caruncula

7

Are salivary glands exocrine or endocrine?

Exocrine (secrete into ducts)

8

What are the main parts of a salivary gland? (3)

External capsule
Septae separating lobes and lobules
Lobules composed of salivons (the functional unit of the gland)

9

What are the parts of the salivon? (3)

A secretory acinus
Intercalated duct
Striated duct

10

What do intercalated ducts combine to form?

Striated ducts

11

What do striated ducts combine to form?

Excretory ducts

12

What type of cells is the acinus of the salivon made up of?

Pyramidal-shaped secretory acinar cells which are either:
-serous cells producing a water secretion rich in alpha-amylase
-mucous cells producing a think mucous-rich secretion

13

What cells surround the acinus?

contractile myoepithelial cells

14

What is the name of the serous cells at the distal end of a mucous, tubuloalveolar secretory unit of certain salivary glands that secretes lysozyme?

Serous demilunes

15

What kind of epithelium lines the intercalated ducts?

Cuboidal epithelium

16

What kind of epithelium lines the striated ducts?

Columnar epithelium

17

What are the main functions of saliva? (5)

Lubrication
Protection (against bacteria and their metabolic products)
Digestion
Copious secretion prior to vomiting (emesis)
Facilitates suckling by infants

18

What 3 components of saliva buffers metabolic acids?

Bicarbonate
phosphate
mucus

19

What component of saliva helps to prevent demineralisation of tooth enamel?

High calcium salt

20

What coats the teeth reducing bacterial adherence?

Protein

21

What component of the saliva limits the availability of iron for bacteria requiring iron for growth?

Lactoferrin (chelates iron)

22

What in the saliva contributes to immunity against bacteria and viruses?

IgA

23

What 2 enzymes are present in saliva?

Alpha-amylase (ptyalin)
Lingual lipase

24

What are the main electrolyte constituents of saliva? (7)

Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, I-, PO4(2-) and HCO3-: present at lower concentration than plasma, apart from K+ and HCO3- which are found at higher concentrations

25

What type of secretions does the parotid glands secrete? (main type of cell)

Serous cells produce a watery alpha-amylase rich solution = 25% of daily secretion

26

What type of secretion does the submandibular glands secrete? (main type of cell)

Mixed serous and mucous cells produce a more viscous solution that the parotids = 70% of daily secretion

27

What type of secretion dies the sublingual gland produce? (main cell type)

Mainly mucous cells = thick solution rich in mucous = 5% of total daily secretion

28

Does HCO3- concentration in saliva (and therefore pH), increase or decrease with increasing rate of secretion?

Increase

29

Does K+ concentration increase or decrease with rate of secretion?

Decrease

30

What are the 2 stages involved in the formation of saliva?

Primary secretion by the acinar cells
Secondary modification by the duct cells