Flashcards in *Physiology 2 Deck (57)
Where are the parotid glands located?
Anterior to the ear below the zygomatic arch
What duct carries saliva from the parotid gland to the mouth and where does it connect with the mouth?
Duct of stensen
Enters mouth opposite second maxillary molar teeth
Where are the submandibular glands located?
Medial to the body of the mandible
What duct carried saliva from the submandibular glad to the mouth and where does it enter the mouth?
Duct of Wharton
Enters the mouth under the tongue by lingula frenulum via sublingual caruncula
Where is the sublingual gland located?
Medial to the submandibular glands
What duct arises from the sublingual glands and where does it connect to?
Ducts of Rivinus/ common Bartholin
Connects with Wharton's duct at the sublingual caruncula
Are salivary glands exocrine or endocrine?
Exocrine (secrete into ducts)
What are the main parts of a salivary gland? (3)
Septae separating lobes and lobules
Lobules composed of salivons (the functional unit of the gland)
What are the parts of the salivon? (3)
A secretory acinus
What do intercalated ducts combine to form?
What do striated ducts combine to form?
What type of cells is the acinus of the salivon made up of?
Pyramidal-shaped secretory acinar cells which are either:
-serous cells producing a water secretion rich in alpha-amylase
-mucous cells producing a think mucous-rich secretion
What cells surround the acinus?
contractile myoepithelial cells
What is the name of the serous cells at the distal end of a mucous, tubuloalveolar secretory unit of certain salivary glands that secretes lysozyme?
What kind of epithelium lines the intercalated ducts?
What kind of epithelium lines the striated ducts?
What are the main functions of saliva? (5)
Protection (against bacteria and their metabolic products)
Copious secretion prior to vomiting (emesis)
Facilitates suckling by infants
What 3 components of saliva buffers metabolic acids?
What component of saliva helps to prevent demineralisation of tooth enamel?
High calcium salt
What coats the teeth reducing bacterial adherence?
What component of the saliva limits the availability of iron for bacteria requiring iron for growth?
Lactoferrin (chelates iron)
What in the saliva contributes to immunity against bacteria and viruses?
What 2 enzymes are present in saliva?
What are the main electrolyte constituents of saliva? (7)
Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, I-, PO4(2-) and HCO3-: present at lower concentration than plasma, apart from K+ and HCO3- which are found at higher concentrations
What type of secretions does the parotid glands secrete? (main type of cell)
Serous cells produce a watery alpha-amylase rich solution = 25% of daily secretion
What type of secretion does the submandibular glands secrete? (main type of cell)
Mixed serous and mucous cells produce a more viscous solution that the parotids = 70% of daily secretion
What type of secretion dies the sublingual gland produce? (main cell type)
Mainly mucous cells = thick solution rich in mucous = 5% of total daily secretion
Does HCO3- concentration in saliva (and therefore pH), increase or decrease with increasing rate of secretion?
Does K+ concentration increase or decrease with rate of secretion?