Flashcards in Anatomy 2 (Lectures 3 and 4) Deck (91)
Medical name for jaundice
what is jaundice
what is it caused by
Yellowing of sclera/ skin
An increase in the blood levels of bilirubin
What is bilirubin a normal by-product of?
The break down of red blood cells
Where does the breakdown of red blood cells normally occur (where is bilirubin produced)?
Spleen (and then passes to the liver where it is used to form bile)
what is bilirubin used to form
Where is bile formed
Where is bile stored and concentrated?
what does bile pass through to get to the gallbladder from the liver
What is this
A set f tubes connecting the liver to the 2nd part of the duodenum
What is bile important for
The normal absorption of fats from the small intestines
What other organ, apart from the gallbladder, excretes digestive enzymes into the 2nd part of the duodenum?
Where is the portal triad found
in the free edge of the lesser omentum
What are the 3 important "tubes" in the portal triad?
Hepatic portal vein
Common bile duct
What part of the portal triad is part of the biliary tree?
The common bile duct (part of biliary tree)
What does the portal triad also contain (apart from the 3 tubes)
Nerve and lymphatics
Where does the celiac trunk branch from
First of 3 midline branches from the abdominal aorta (retroperitoneal)
At what level does the celiac trunk arise
From around T12
What organs does the celiac trunk supply
The organs of the foregut
What are the 3 branches of the celiac trunk
Left gastric artery
(each of these arteries then give rise to further arteries)
What kind of course does the splenic artery take
A very tortuous course along the superior border of the pancreas
In relation to the peritoneum, what type of organ is the spleen
Which region of the abdomen is it in
What is the function of the spleen within the haematological system
To break down red blood cells to produce bilirubin
Which ribs protect the spleen
Ribs 9-11 (rib fractures can therefore pierce the soft delicate spleen and cause substantial internal bleeding)
Where does the blood supply to the stomach mainly come from (2)
Right and left gastric arteries which run along the lesser curvature of the stomach and anastomose together
Also the right and left gastro-mental arteries which run along the greater curvature and anastomose together
Where does the blood supply to the liver come from?
Hepatic artery which branches into the right and left hepatic arteries (this only accounts for about 20-25% of blood received by the liver - the rest comes from the hepatic portal vein)
The liver has a dual blood supply
What is the liver anatomically related to?
The diaphragm, stomach, gallbladder, hepatic flexture, right kidney and right adrenal gland, IVC and abdominal aorta
Where does the gallbladder sit on the liver
Not the posterior and inferior surfaces
What type of organ is the liver
A major metabolic organ and converts bilirubin to bile
Which ribs protect the liver
4 anatomical segments of the liver
caudate lobe (more posterior and superior)
Quadrate lobe (more anterior and inferior)