Anatomy 2 (Lectures 3 and 4) Flashcards Preview

Study Notes - Gastroenterology > Anatomy 2 (Lectures 3 and 4) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 2 (Lectures 3 and 4) Deck (91)
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1

Medical name for jaundice

Icterus

2

what is jaundice
what is it caused by

Yellowing of sclera/ skin
An increase in the blood levels of bilirubin

3

What is bilirubin a normal by-product of?

The break down of red blood cells

4

Where does the breakdown of red blood cells normally occur (where is bilirubin produced)?

Spleen (and then passes to the liver where it is used to form bile)

5

what is bilirubin used to form

Bile

6

Where is bile formed

The liver

7

Where is bile stored and concentrated?

The gallbladder

8

what does bile pass through to get to the gallbladder from the liver
What is this

Biliary tree
A set f tubes connecting the liver to the 2nd part of the duodenum

9

What is bile important for

The normal absorption of fats from the small intestines

10

What other organ, apart from the gallbladder, excretes digestive enzymes into the 2nd part of the duodenum?

The pancreas

11

Where is the portal triad found

in the free edge of the lesser omentum

12

What are the 3 important "tubes" in the portal triad?

Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal vein
Common bile duct

13

What part of the portal triad is part of the biliary tree?

The common bile duct (part of biliary tree)

14

What does the portal triad also contain (apart from the 3 tubes)

Nerve and lymphatics

15

Where does the celiac trunk branch from

First of 3 midline branches from the abdominal aorta (retroperitoneal)

16

At what level does the celiac trunk arise

From around T12

17

What organs does the celiac trunk supply

The organs of the foregut

18

What are the 3 branches of the celiac trunk

Splenic artery
Hepatic artery
Left gastric artery
(each of these arteries then give rise to further arteries)

19

What kind of course does the splenic artery take

A very tortuous course along the superior border of the pancreas

20

In relation to the peritoneum, what type of organ is the spleen
Which region of the abdomen is it in

Intraperitoenal
left hypochondrium

21

What is the function of the spleen within the haematological system

To break down red blood cells to produce bilirubin

22

Which ribs protect the spleen

Ribs 9-11 (rib fractures can therefore pierce the soft delicate spleen and cause substantial internal bleeding)

23

Where does the blood supply to the stomach mainly come from (2)

Right and left gastric arteries which run along the lesser curvature of the stomach and anastomose together
Also the right and left gastro-mental arteries which run along the greater curvature and anastomose together

24

Where does the blood supply to the liver come from?

Hepatic artery which branches into the right and left hepatic arteries (this only accounts for about 20-25% of blood received by the liver - the rest comes from the hepatic portal vein)
The liver has a dual blood supply

25

What is the liver anatomically related to?

The diaphragm, stomach, gallbladder, hepatic flexture, right kidney and right adrenal gland, IVC and abdominal aorta

26

Where does the gallbladder sit on the liver

Not the posterior and inferior surfaces

27

What type of organ is the liver

A major metabolic organ and converts bilirubin to bile

28

Which ribs protect the liver

7-11

29

4 anatomical segments of the liver

Right lobe
left lobe
caudate lobe (more posterior and superior)
Quadrate lobe (more anterior and inferior)

30

What does each of the 8 functional segments of the liver have?

Its own blood supply (hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein), venous drainage and bile drainage