Flashcards in *Oral conditions (lecture 1) Deck (52)
Where are the lingual tonsils located?
At the postural lateral side of the tongue (key site where oral cancer can present)
What is the torus mandibularis?
A bony growth in the mandible along the surface nearest to the tongue
What is anaemia?
A decrease in the amount of red blood cells
What is a haematinic?
A hematinic is a nutrient required for the formation of blood cells in the process of hematopoiesis. The main hematinics are iron, B12, and folate
How can anaemia/ haematinic deficiencies present in the oral cavity?
Recurrent oral ulceration
What is angular chelitis?
What causes it?
Cracking at the side of the mouth that may extend around the lips (painful and can crack and bleed)
Caused by candida, staph coccus, strep cocci or staple aureus infection (can be a combination of these)
It is therefore an infection however a haematinic deficiency is a predisposing factor
What are the most common type of recurrent mouth ulcers?
Aphthous stomatitis (ulceration)
What are the 3 different types of aphthous ulcers?
Minor (most common) = small (less than 10mm across), pale yellow with a red swollen area around them, usually come in about groups of 5 and disappear in 7-10 days without leaving a scar
Major = usually 10mm or larger across, get one or 2 at a time, lasts from weeks to months and leaves a scar, can be very painful
Herpetiform = tiny pin-head size ulcers, get multiple at the one time and some may join together, lasts a week to 2 months, usually very painful
When should mouth ulcers be investigated further?
When they suddenly start or if they become a lot worse than normal
What are 3 examples of GI diseases that manifest with recurrent oral ulceration?
Is Crohns or UC granulomatous?
Symptoms/ signs of oral Crohns disease? (4)
Lip swelling (usually fluctuates initially, swelling is soft and not painful usually, swelling can lead to cracking)
Oral manifestation of type II diabetes?
Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis - candida yeast infection in the mouth - thrush (yeast feeds on high levels of salvia sugar) - also caused by anything that lowers your immune system
What is an adverse side effect of nicorandil (used to treat angina)?
Oral ulceration - patient can be taking the drugs for many years before they develop a problem (patients should stop the drug as soon as they develop ulcers if got them in mouth, likely to have them somewhere else)
What is an adverse side effect of ACEI?
What side effect in the mouth do NSAIDs have?
Can cause recurrent mouth ulcers
What oral symptom do many drugs have?
A dry mouth (mainly anti-muscarinic medications)
What is lichen planus?
A non-infectious rash that affects many areas of the body e.g. oral mucosa, skin, scalp, nails, genitals
Is lichen Planus related to cancer?
Yes, it is a potentially malignant condition
Where does lichen plans most commonly affect?
The tongue and buccal mucosae
Symptoms of oral lichen planus?
Sometimes asymptomatic, can cause sensitivity to sour/ spicy food, can cause atrophy of the oral mucosae and blister and white plaques
If erosive lichen planus, it can cause painful ulcers to develop
What is a cause of lichen planus?
Usually unknown cause but can be due to a type 4 hypersensitivity reaction to the likes of dental filling materials
What is another name for mucous membrane pemphigoid?
What is it?
Rare condition that causes blisters and vesicles to form in mucosal membrane (most commonly the eyes and mouth) leading to ulcer formation
What is an autoimmune disorder which can cause a severe dry mouth?
What are the 2 different types of Sjogrens syndrome?
primary – when the syndrome develops by itself and not as the result of another condition
secondary – when the syndrome develops in combination with another autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
What are the symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome?
Dry mouth and/ or eyes
What are 3 signs of a dry mouth?
Very sticky oral mucosa
Increased tooth decay
What are the 3 ways in which HIV/ AIDs can manifest in the mouth?
Candiditis (usually chronic)
What is Kapok's sarcoma?
A type of cancer that forms from the cells lining the blood vessels or lymph vessels (most common develops in a patient with HIV/ AIDs)