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Flashcards in *Physiology (1) Deck (74)
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1

What is the alimentary canal?

series of hollow organs running from the mouth to the anus (oral to aboral) that are separated by sphincters controlling movement

2

4 functions of the mouth and oropharynx

chop food
lubricate it
start carbohydrate (and limited fat) digestion
propel food to oesophagus

3

Purpose of oesophagus

Propels food to the stomach

4

3 functions of stomach

stores and churns food
continues carbohydrate and initiates protein diffusions
regulates delivery of chyme (semifluid mass of partly digested food) to the duodenum

5

3 parts of the small intestine

Duodenum
Jejunum
ileum

6

Purpose of small intestine

Principle site of digestion and absorption of nutrietns

7

3 main parts of the large intestine

Appendix
Cecum
Colon (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid)

8

2 functions of large intestine

colon reabsorbs fluids and electrolytes
Stores faecal matter before delivery of faeces

9

Purpose of rectum and anus

Storage and regulated expulsion of faeces

10

Accessory glands of the GI tract?

Salivary gland
pancreas
liver and gallbladder

11

What are sphincters

sphincters are reinforced circles of smooth muscle which act as unidirectional valves creating movement in one direction

12

4 activities of the alimentary canal

Motility
secretion
digestion
absorption

13

What is motility

Mechanical activity mainly involving smooth muscle

14

4 places skeletal muscle is present

Mouth, pharynx, upper oesophagus and external anal sphincter

15

What does secretion occur due to

the presence of food, hormonal and neural signals

16

what are the 3 things secretion is required for

Digestion
protection
lubrication

17

what is digestion?

chemical breakdown by enzymatic hydrolysis of complex foodstuffs to smaller, absorbable units

18

Where does physical digestion occur (3)

Mouth
stomach
small intestine

19

What is absorption

transfer of the absorbable products of digestion (with water, electrolytes and vitamins) from the digestive tract to the blood, or lymph

20

overal length of the digestive tract

7-10m

21

What are the 4 generalised layers of the digestive tract

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis externa
Serosa

22

What is the 5 things the mucosa is made up from

epithelial cells
exocrine cells
endocrine gland cells
lamina propria (capillaries, enteric neurones, immune cells)
muscularis mucosae (thin layer of muscle that can regulate the surface area of the mucosa)

23

What is the 4 things the submucosa is made of

connective tissue
larger blood and lymph vessels
glands
nerve network (sub-mucous plexus)

24

What are the 3 things the muscularis externa is made up of

circular muscle layer
nerve network (myenteric plexus)
longitudinal muscle layer

25

What is the serosa made up from

Connective tissue
releases a sticky fluid that can help the intestines slide across each other and the peritoneum

26

What are the 3 types of smooth muscle in the GI tract

Circular
longitudinal
muscularis mucosae

27

What is the name of the 3 bands of longitudinal layers that are present in the colon

Taeniea coli

28

Where is an extra oblique layer of muscularis mucosae present

Stomach

29

What happens when circular muscle contracts

The lumen becomes narrower and longer

30

What happens when longitudinal muscle contracts

The intestine becomes shorter and fatter